Duodenitis

Superficial duodenitis: forms, complications and treatment

In our time, diseases of the digestive system have taken almost the first place among other diseases. Probably, there is not a single person who at least once in his life has not experienced the severe symptoms of gastrointestinal upset. Superficial duodenitis is one of the pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract that develops in the duodenum. It is an inflammatory process localized to its mucosa. The danger of the disease is that it entails functional disorders of the digestive organ, changing its enzymatic and motor functions. In order not to become a hostage to this pathological process, it is necessary to know its very first symptoms. This will help to visit a gastroenterologist in a timely manner and begin an adequate treatment that can completely eliminate the dangerous and unpleasant illness.

The main signs of the disease

Superficial duodenitis is not an independent disease. According to statistics, it is most often According to statistics, disorder in conjunction with gastritis occurs in more than 50% of the population. Chronic inflammation of the small intestine or gastric mucosa, as well as gastric ulcer, also leads to the development of this pathology. The course of the disease is characterized by two stages - exacerbation and remission. Clinical manifestations corresponding to superficial duodenitis are most pronounced in the period of relapse of the pathology, and after the treatment they performed, they do not completely remind of themselves.

The main signs by which it is possible to determine the beginning exacerbation are considered to be the umbilical and localized pain in the epigastric region. They usually intensify at night. Perhaps the appearance of dyspeptic symptoms, as well as general symptoms, characterized by fatigue and weakness. If the inflammatory process is strongly activated, a significant rise in temperature is possible.

Only sometimes a sick person may be disturbed by discomfort in the stomach, but these sensations do not cause any inconvenience and do not violate the quality of life. Such a serious disease as duodenitis symptoms, which most clearly characterize it, has the following:

  • aching pains in the area of ​​epigastria, aggravated by palpation
  • constant feeling of nausea, sometimes passing into vomiting, bringing a significant relief to a sick person,
  • heartburn,
  • abnormal stools expressed in frequent diarrhea,
  • increased gas formation,
  • constant tension of the abdominal muscles
  • profuse salivation.

In addition to these symptoms specific for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, in this pathology there are also common manifestations of indisposition, such as high fever, sweating, constant drowsiness, weakness, reduced performance, frequent dizziness. Any of these negative signs can significantly weaken in the case when the surface duodenitis becomes chronic.

The main therapeutic measures

Identify duodenitis surface forms alone is impossible. The technique of diagnostic studies is the prerogative of the specialist.

Only the attending physician can prescribe a course of therapeutic measures and advise his patient exactly what to treat this disease. Previously, he will conduct a full diagnosis, which allows to determine with accuracy whether a chronic or superficial appearance has struck the human duodenum, and only then will the treatment protocol be drawn up.

In order to completely cure the ailment, complex therapeutic measures are needed, which consist of taking medication and following a strict diet. When prescribing a therapeutic course to get rid of superficial duodenitis, symptoms are taken as a basis, and treatment is selected depending on their severity. Usually, the following groups of drugs are used in drug therapy:

  • anacid agents that normalize the acidity of gastric juice,
  • histamine H2 blockers that reduce the production of digestive secretions,
  • proton pump inhibitors that suppress the production of hydrochloric acid,
  • antiemetics,
  • antispasmodics and pain medications,
  • coating agents that protect the duodenal mucosa from external irritants.

In order to restore the functions of digestion in patients with superficial duodenitis, enzymes are prescribed without fail. Herbal concoctions have also proved good. They are used to reduce the inflammatory process. The best effect was shown by such herbs as yarrow and chamomile.

Diet food is the main part of therapy. In the superficial form of duodenitis, diet is considered the most important point in treatment. Without nutritional correction, no drugs can help get rid of pathological inflammation in the duodenum.

This therapeutic nutrition continues for 12 days and provides for the following nuances:

  • Fragmentation, that is, food should be taken often, but with the smallest portions. This helps facilitate the work of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Also attention is paid to ensure that all food is thoroughly crushed. Due to this, the inflamed mucosa does not suffer mechanical damage.
  • Temperature mode. A sick person should eat slightly warm food in order not to cause additional thermal damage to the digestive organs.
  • Culinary processing. It is permissible to boil food in water or steamed and bake. But fried foods for patients with this disease are absolutely contraindicated.

If all of the above recommendations are observed, this disease will recede very quickly, and a sick person within a couple of weeks will reach a state of complete remission. During it, it is necessary to listen as closely as possible to the state of your body so that in case of an aggravation that has begun again, contact a specialist as soon as possible. It is categorically not recommended to take any medications, as this will further harm the duodenum and only worsen the condition of the person.

Causes of disease

Superficial duodenitis occurs exclusively as a secondary pathology against the background of an already existing gastrointestinal tract of a disease such as pancreatitis, gastric ulcer, enterocolitis, or gastritis.

But in isolated cases, such duodenitis develops as an independent inflammatory pathological process caused by a long unhealthy diet with daily consumption of irritating food and alcohol.

The main causes of superficial duodenitis are:

  1. The abuse of spicy and sour, fatty and fried, bitter foods, when the percentage of its consumption is half of the total food,
  2. Irregular food intake, dry snacks and on the go,
  3. Acute poisoning, the consequence of which often becomes the development of superficial duodenitis due to the effect of toxins on the duodenal mucosa,
  4. Increased gastric gastric acidity, in which gastric acid penetrates into the cavity of the duodenum and irritates its mucous membrane,
  5. Abuse of alcohol, including beer.

Forms of inflammation

The surface type of duodenitis can occur in several forms:

  • Superficial gastroduodenitis is a mixed pathological form that combines a gastritis clinic with duodenitis,
  • Proximal superficial inflammation is a chronic lesion that has begun to affect the deeper layers of the duodenum.

Chronic forms of superficial inflammation of the duodenum are treated exclusively in stationary conditions, and gastroduodenitis requires treatment of gastritic symptoms first, and only then inflammation in the intestinal tissues is relieved.

Proximal shape

Proximal duodenitis is an inflammatory lesion of the articular region of the stomach with the duodenum, this section is called the proximal or duodenal bulb, and therefore inflammation of this localization is often referred to as bulbit.

The disease usually develops in conjunction with gastrointestinal tract pathologies such as ulcerative pathology of the duodenum 12 or of the stomach or chronic gastritis, etc.

A particular lesion of the duodenal bulb usually acts as a fundamental factor in the development of this form of inflammation. It is located at the junction of the stomach and intestine, where the acid from the stomach penetrates.

And it is precisely in the bulb goes bile duct, so the combination of such irritating factors, along with the gastrointestinal tract pathologies, unhealthy addictions and improper food provokes the development of superficial bulbit or proximal superficial duodenitis.

Superficial duodenitis gastritis

Surface type gastroduodenitis is mucous lesions of the gastric and duodenal membranes. The development of such an inflammatory process is localized exclusively on the mucous surface of the surface, without affecting the deeper layers of the gastrointestinal tract.

If gastroduodenitis is not treated promptly, the pathology gradually becomes chronic, accompanied by a number of complications, which only aggravates the patient's condition.

The statistics is such that the frequency of occurrence of this disease increases annually, especially in patients of older school age. At an older age, gastroduodenitis enters a chronic gastritis or gastric ulcer, since superficial inflammation of the mucous membrane is considered the previous stage of these diseases.

Therefore, timely treatment of superficial duodenitis gastritis will avoid such dangerous complications.

For surface duodenitis, the presence of such manifestations is typical:

  • Painful tingling in the umbilical region,
  • Soreness in the stomach,
  • Frequent nausea-vomiting,
  • Heartburn and excessive salivation,
  • Dizziness with characteristic weakness,
  • Reduced performance
  • Hyper-fluidity,
  • Hyperthermia,
  • On palpation, there are very unpleasant sensations in the abdomen,
  • Dysentery,
  • Excessive tension of the abdominal muscles.

Complications

The most common complication of superficial duodenitis is chronization of the inflammatory process.

In addition, the progression of pathological changes in the mucous membranes can provoke such complications:

  • Abundant internal bleeding,
  • Erosive and ulcerative lesions of the duodenum,
  • Adhesions,
  • Perforation of the intestine
  • The formation of neoplasms of benign and oncological nature.

Such complications usually develop in the absence of therapeutic measures or their improper implementation.

Diagnostics

Clinical manifestations of superficial inflammation of the duodenum are non-specific, so they can be easily confused with the manifestations of other pathological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.

Correct diagnosis and accurate determination of pathology can only be done by a qualified specialist in the field of gastroenterology. Correctly performed diagnostics allows to determine the presence of concomitant pathologies, which always occur during inflammation of the duodenal mucosa.

An experienced specialist will determine the first manifestations of the pathology already at the initial intake on the basis of anamnesis, palpation of the abdomen and information provided by the patient.

To confirm the diagnosis, the patient is assigned to conduct additional diagnostic procedures:

  1. A blood test that, when duodenitis, will show a reduced hemoglobin and an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
  2. Studies of feces will show the presence of hidden blood.
  3. Fibrogastroduodenoscopy involves examining the duodenum through an endoscope, which, when duodenitis, will show erosive lesions of the walls and hyperemia of the mucous membranes, swelling, hemorrhages and follicular formations on the mucous membranes, as well as atrophy of the intestinal walls.
  4. The study of the pH of the esophagus at which determined gastric acidity. For this purpose, the contents of the duodenum and stomach are sampled using a special probe, after which it is examined for acid.
  5. Radiography involves diagnosing with the use of a contrast pharmaceutical (usually barium sulfate), which envelops the intestinal walls and provides high-quality images. In duodenitis, this diagnosis will show the presence of ulcerative wounds on the intestinal walls, as well as the presence of narrowed and dilated areas in the duodenum.

Treatment of superficial duodenitis

In the treatment of superficial duodenitis an integrated approach is applied with the use of drug therapy and a dietary nutrition program. In this case, the patient is required strict compliance with all medical recommendations and prescriptions.

  • To eliminate painful symptoms, it is recommended to take antispasmodic drugs like No-shpy and Riabola, Drotaverin and Meverin.
  • To eliminate vomiting, taking medications like Tsirukal and Motilium, Domperidone and Motorix, Metoclopramide, etc. is recommended. Therapy involves the intramuscular injection of these medications.
  • If superficial inflammation of the duodenum is accompanied by erosive lesions, the use of enveloping preparations such as Maalox or Almagel is recommended.
  • Reni or Gaviscon preparations are shown to lower gastric acidity. To reduce the irritant action on the mucous membrane, Famotidine or Ranitidine, Kvamatel is prescribed.
  • Additionally, during erosive processes, De-nol, Omeprazole, etc. are prescribed.

Inflammatory lesions are well removed herbal infusions of chamomile flowers, calendula and coltsfoot.

You also can not do without a therapeutic diet, which involves the use of liquid porridge and jelly, mucous soups and liquid steam omelets for at least two weeks.

Then the diet is supplemented with steam meat cutlets or fish, the use of pureed meat soups, etc. Irritating junk food is strictly prohibited. It includes any smoked and spicy, marinades and spices, fried and sour.

Also under the strictest ban smoking and alcohol products.

What is duodenitis of the stomach

The use of spicy, smoked food and alcohol provokes an inflammatory lesion of the duodenal mucous tissue. Toxic substances, heavy metals enter the human body with water, food, air, causing inside its acute poisoning, burns, ulceration of the gastrointestinal mucosa. The result is a violation of the relationship between the factors of the aggressive state and the protective reaction of the gastroduodenal zone.

Spicy fried dishes have a detrimental effect on the body, beneficial microflora, and interfere with the digestive process. Alcohol does not allow the production of mucin, the lack of which weakens the state of the human body, leads to dysfunction of the stomach, contributes to the occurrence of inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract.

Symptoms and types of the disease

It is not easy to diagnose gastric duodenitis because of its maximum similarity with gastritis, ulcer, hepatic colic, pancreatitis, gastroduodenitis. It can be predetermined if you know the main clinical picture of the course. The following symptoms are known in medicine:

  • Painful sensations in the epigastric region. Chronic duodenitis is characterized by constant dull pain after eating or fasting, ulcerative - by nighttime attacks in the stomach. Similar symptoms - cramping soreness of the shingles character.
  • Extreme fatigue. Malaise is associated with the effect of intoxication during the inflammatory process. The consequence is a rise in temperature to 38 ° C.
  • Disruption of the stomachdigesting food. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, profuse gas formation, poor appetite. Enzymes are not synthesized due to inflamed stomach walls.
  • Bitter taste in the mouth and yellowness (due to the release of bile into the esophagus).

Due to the prolonged course of the disease, the body is disturbed. Without getting the necessary nutrients, a malfunction occurs, which is manifested in neuro-psychic arousal, hormonal disturbance, dizziness and discoloration of the skin. This means that treatment should be timely.

In the form of duodenitis is:

  • Acute - damage to the walls of the body occurs, which is accompanied by constant cutting pains. The digestive process is disturbed, nagging, vomiting, diluted fecal masses, and strong flatulence appear. Without taking therapeutic measures can go into a stagnant state.
  • Chronic - the protracted nature of the inflammation of the duodenum due to infection. Puffy mucous tissue prevents splitting of food, the flow of bile. Formed duodenostasis.

Endoscopic examination determines the types of duodenitis:

  • Atrophic - a form of chronic disease, involving the thinning of the intestine and thickening of epithelial tissue.
  • Reactive - characterized as acute. May occur against the background of the haphazard use of anti-inflammatory medications.
  • Hemorrhagic - formed with long-term use of drugs and a large number of alcoholic beverages. Inherent heavy bleeding. Blood is excreted with feces or emetic stools.
  • Interstitial - without the presence of atrophy of the intestinal walls.
  • Catarrhal - has similarities with hemorrhagic. Relief comes with a weekly observance of the necessary diet.
  • Superficial - no significant changes in the deep folds of the epithelium.
  • Phlegmonous - the presence of pus in the lower region of the duodenum.
  • Erythematous - a type of chronic duodenitis with weak immunity and general malaise.
  • Erosive and ulcerative - the presence of cracks, ulceration and wounds on the walls of the intestine. Food digestion is impaired. Causes acute pain, is in-depth.
  • Focal - located on a specific area of ​​the mucous tissue of the intestine.

Accurate diagnosis

For the purpose of research, patients should contact a gastroenterologist with signs of duodenitis:

  • Unpleasant pain "under the spoon": from aching to acute, paroxysmal.
  • Malaise and pain after eating.
  • Belching and unpleasant burning sensation (as a result of reflux).
  • Nausea, vomiting.
  • Change stools (diarrhea, constipation).
  • Refusal to eat and sharply advancing state of acute hunger.

When feeling the abdomen within the stomach (the area below the chest, above the umbilical cavity, between the ribs), there are unpleasant painful sensations.

Fibrogastroduodenoscopy (FGDS)

Inspection of the surface inside the gastrointestinal tract, using video equipment placed at the end of the probe, with the following signs of duodenitis visible, enabling the specialist to recognize it:

  • Edematous tissue.
  • Hyperemia of the mucous membrane - indicates catarrhal duodenitis.
  • Cracks, visible erosion in the inner area - ulcerative disease, the onset of erosive manifestation.
  • Straightening folds - reduced duodenal tone.
  • Convexes on the walls - the occurrence of nodular duodenitis.
  • Bruises of irregular shape - hemorrhagic picture.

Fibrogastroduodenoscopy allows a biopsy of the mucous membrane to examine a piece of tissue under a microscope and establish the degree of thinning (atrophy) of the intestine, the possibility of a neoplasm.

X-ray contrast study

Conducted by the introduction of the inside of barium sulfate, a contrast agent. Diagnosis makes it possible to examine in detail the intestinal perineum due to the enveloping effect of barium. The pictures in this procedure are taken in different projections.

Thanks to this study, you can notice the likely signs of the disease:

  • Narrowed or enlarged areas of the organ.
  • Flatulence.
  • Edematous areas of inflammation.
  • Reflux duodenitis (emissions of food residues from the duodenum 12 back into the stomach).

This procedure is the least painful, much more accessible and easier tolerated by patients, but can only reveal abnormalities in the work of the stomach, and not changes in the tissues of the organ.

Laboratory tests are also prescribed for the diagnosis of the disease:

  • Complete blood count will show a decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
  • The sample taken for the study of feces - hidden particles of blood that appear in the presence of cracks and erosion.

Treatment of gastric duodenitis

To treat gastric duodenitis begin simultaneously in four directions:

  • Remove inflammation.
  • Eliminate chronic manifestations.
  • Restore the working functions of the duodenum.
  • Adjust the digestion of food.

You can treat duodenitis at home. The primary task for recovery is rest, sparing diet, rejection of bad habits. Following the simple rules will help restore the blood flow to the duodenum and normalize the working properties of its tissues.

The indications for treatment in inpatient conditions for duodenitis are the following states:

  • Exacerbation of the disease.
  • Suspected tumors in the small intestine.
  • Difficult cases.
  • The clinical picture with ulcers, cracks, erosion.

Medicines

Four groups of drugs are used for treatment:

  • Inhibitors (omeprazole 20 mg), blocking the ability of the glands to produce hydrochloric acid, irritant bowel tissue. To use in 20 minutes prior to food twice a day in the morning and in the evening on 1 tablet. Duration from 7 to 10 days.
  • Antibiotics (Metronidazole 500 mg) for the elimination of infections - twice a day, 1 tab., Seven to fourteen days.
  • Multi-enzyme drugs (Creon 1000), which have an auxiliary effect in the breakdown of food. One capsule is used before meals, the second - in the process or after it, swallowing without opening.
  • No-shpa (Drotaverin) - antispasmodics - to relieve pain, spasm, muscle relaxation - 2 tablets three times a day.

For each patient, their own method of therapy is chosen, paying attention to the form and degree of the disease. To self-medicate should not be in order to avoid relapse and eliminate the danger to life.

Folk remedies

In combination with drug therapy, duodenitis of the stomach can be cured using alternative medicine recipes. For example, a good effect is achieved by drinking one teaspoon of honey three times a day before meals. It is advisable to use it until the complete disappearance of the symptoms of the disease. Freshly prepared juice of raw potatoes and carrots, which are taken on an empty stomach ½ cup before meals, also helps in the treatment. The term of reception is up to ten days.

Sea buckthorn oil has a healing effect, if it is a natural product, without additives. Ideally, the tool should be applied every morning and evening before meals, one teaspoon. Reception course up to 1 month. Using traditional medicine is beneficial if the patient is allergic to drugs.

Proper balanced nutrition in the prevention and treatment of disease is an essential condition for a positive outcome. Restrictions strictly adhere to the first three weeks. Their basis is mucous (enveloping) decoctions of cereals (oatmeal, rice), semolina or buckwheat porridge in liquid form, lean meat, fish, and grated soups.

Meals should be fractional and frequent up to 5-6 times a day. The last meal is made no later than 2 hours before bedtime. Food should be warm, no more than 50 0 C. It is forbidden to use fresh pastries, it is better to give preference to crackers. It is not recommended to take food products that can excite the secretory glands of the stomach, as well as food consisting of coarse plant fibers. Strongly prohibited alcohol, carbonated liquids, seasonings and spices.

Possible complications

Untimely access to a doctor can lead to perforation of the stomach, provoke gastric pathology with the appearance of ulcers. As a result, the following complications will appear:

  • Weakening and dehydration.
  • The formation of bleeding.
  • Intestinal obstruction.

Prevention

Measures to prevent duodenitis include maintaining a good lifestyle, good nutrition, elimination from the diet of spicy, fatty foods, avoiding alcohol, smoking.

Duodenitis of the stomach - a disease that is easily treatable in the initial stage. When the first symptoms appear, it is necessary to urgently consult a doctor and strictly follow his recommendations in order to restore the functioning of the stomach. Do not self-medicate, avoiding the occurrence of a chronic condition. You should always remember about the important role of the stomach in the overall mechanism of the body and prevent failures in its work.

Superficial duodenitis - differences from other forms of the disease

This subspecies of duodenitis harms the upper part of the duodenal mucosa. In contrast, for example, erythematous and focal are reddenings of individual sections of the mucous membrane. In the mucous there are changes that can bring terrible consequences. There is a thickening of the mucous, sometimes there is the formation of folds, which is a sign of a chronic type of the disease.

Superficial duodenitis is a secondary duodenitis, as it is formed as a result of exposure to another disease of the gastrointestinal tract, such as gastritis, enterocolitis or pancreatitis. There are still primary and reactive species. The latter is a consequence of the effects of drugs on the gastrointestinal tract.
Such a type as proximal duodenitis in its pure form is extremely rare. The reason for his education can serve as the abuse of alcohol and spicy food.

Causes

There is a lot that can cause the development of inflammation of dpc. Among the main ones:

  1. the use of bitter, fried, fatty, spicy and sour foods - provided that its share in the total human diet is more than 50 percent,
  2. irregular meals, as well as dry food,
  3. acute poisoning or toxicosis - toxins irritate the mucous membrane of the dcp,
  4. excessive use of alcohol (including low alcohol),
  5. increased acidity of the gastrointestinal tract - the acid formed in the stomach, when released into the intestine, irritates its mucous membrane.

The reasons described above can easily lead to the formation of a superficial one, and if you have several reasons from this list, then your probability of developing the disease in the chronic stage sharply increases.

Types of superficial duodenitis

This category is divided into superficial and proximal gastritis duodenitis. The latter is a chronic duodenitis, which has passed from the superficial to the more serious stage. The chronic form of the disease can be treated exclusively in the hospital under the supervision of the attending physician. The erosive form appears due to the acute stage of gastritis. Treatment is applied mixed - at first they get rid of the symptoms of gastritis itself, and then they take up the inflammation of dpc.

Symptoms in remission:

  1. all the same weakness of the body
  2. erosive nausea may be felt after eating
  3. migraine on fasting for several hours
  4. excessive acidity after eating,
  5. weak pulling, then completely disappearing, then reappearing pain in the navel.

The patient may take the phase of remission for recovery, as there may be no unpleasant sensations at all. But if time does not begin to be treated, the disease will quickly take the form of an exacerbation and develop into a chronic one.

Unfortunately, self-diagnosis of inflammation of the duodenum, as well as cure it will not succeed. The fact is that all the symptoms are extremely similar to the symptoms of other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and therefore it is impossible to unequivocally identify the disease. In order to establish an accurate diagnosis, a doctor is required to collect anamnesis, conduct blood tests, feces, as well as the contents of the dpc and stomach. After all this, you can try to establish a diagnosis - a chronic or superficial type of inflammation.

In the process of therapy, a mixed form of treatment is used - they produce a drug effect on the patient's body and maintain the necessary diet. The patient is required to fully comply with all recommendations and eat strictly by the hour.

In order to relieve pain symptoms, therapy is carried out using antispasmodic agents - the choice of drugs is quite large, the prices are low.

The urge to nausea and vomiting is removed drugs, such as, nausilium. In this case, preference should be given to drugs in ampoules for intramuscular injection - in this case the drug enters the blood, bypassing the stomach, without causing him even more harm.

When the erosive nature of the disease is used enveloping the mucous preparations to reduce the effects on it. To reduce the irritating environment, receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors are used.

It is useful to drink infusions of herbs - calendula, coltsfoot, chamomile.

Any medication treatment well complements the diet on the Pevsner treatment tables, as well as physiotherapeutic procedures. Such procedures may include microwave therapy, electrophoresis, mud therapy, and others.

What it is

Superficial duodenitis is an inflammatory process that affects the mucous membrane of the 12 - rings of the intestine, causing puffiness and thickening of the walls. Both organic and motor and enzyme functions of the organ are impaired. In some cases, swelling is observed in other organs of the digestive system. In superficial duodenitis, inflammation is localized only on the upper layer of the duodenal mucosa.

In most cases, the pathological condition is combined with other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Rarely, but the occurrence of superficial duodenitis as the only pathology of the digestive tract.

The development of superficial duodenitis provokes exacerbation and detection of various gastrointestinal diseases. For example, in gastritis with high acidity, acidic contents enter the intestine, irritating and damaging its walls.

Superficial duodenitis in the initial phase of development is asymptomatic, which explains the difficulties of its diagnosis in the acute form. Since this type of duodenitis is detected as a complication of an already existing gastrointestinal disease, there is a worsening of the symptoms of the primary disease.

The main symptoms of the disease are as follows:

  • constant nausea, sometimes vomiting,
  • feeling of discomfort in the abdomen and navel zone,
  • short cramping pain,
  • weakness, feeling tired, irritable without reason,
  • hyperhidrosis (increased sweating),
  • fever,
  • heartburn, increased salivation,
  • loss of appetite
  • unstable chair. Constipation alternate with sharp and prolonged bouts of diarrhea.

When conducting instrumental studies (endoscopic examination) of the presence of superficial duodenitis indicate:

  • redness and swelling of the duodenal mucosa,
  • follicles in the intestinal mucosa,
  • atrophy and erosion of the intestinal wall.

The appearance of superficial duodenitis is mainly associated with improperly organized lifestyle. The cause of the disease can be heredity, concomitant pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, unbalanced nutrition. The main causes of the disease are as follows:

  • improper diet, frequent use of fatty and spicy foods, carbonated drinks, spices that irritate the duodenal mucosa, interfere with the process of digestion,
  • regular use of alcohol, caffeinated beverages, smoking,
  • bile duct infections or toxic effects after poisoning,
  • increased acid. The acidic environment that forms in the stomach and causes heartburn and pain,
  • chronic gastritis, which can lead to the development of pancreatitis, colitis, duodenitis and other serious complications,
  • circulatory failure. As a result of impaired blood flow, the tissue structure of the mucous membrane is damaged, which leads to various complications, including duodenitis.

Forms of the disease

There are two phases of superficial duodenitis. One phase can move into another, as well as into a chronic form. When neglected diseases of pain in the duodenum intensified. There is a risk of antral gastritis.

The following phases are distinguished:

  1. Aggravation. The patient feels a constant increase in pain. Spasms and cramping pains appear at night, often accompanied by headaches, heart rhythm disturbances, irritation and respiratory disorders. There are such signs as a result of hormonal disruption in the work of 12 - intestinal rings. Over time, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, heaviness in the abdomen.
  2. Remission. The phase is characterized by a weakening of the symptoms. The pain subsides, duodenitis becomes a more serious disease.

The surface type of duodenitis occurs in the following forms:

  1. Superficial gastroduodenitis. It is a mixed form that combines gastritis clinic with duodenitis,
  2. Proximal superficial inflammation. This is a lesion of a chronic nature, in which there is a lesion of the deeper layers of the duodenum.

Chronic forms of superficial duodenitis are treated in stationary conditions. When gastroduodenitis is detected, treatment begins with the elimination of gastritic symptoms, then relieve inflammation in the intestinal tissue structures.

Proximal duodenitis is characterized by inflammation of the gastric articulation zone (an onion of 12 - intestinal rings) with duodenum. The disease is combined with gastrointestinal ulcers or chronic gastritis.

Superficial gastroduodenitis is detected by a lesion of the gastric mucosa and duodenum. The process is localized solely on the mucous membrane, does not affect the deep layers of the gastrointestinal tract.

In the absence of therapeutic treatment, superficial duodenitis may progress, leading to chronic inflammation and certain complications. Probable pathological changes of the mucous membrane, which provokes abundant internal bleeding, the formation of erosive and ulcerative lesions of the duodenum, the appearance of adhesive formations, perforation of the intestine, the formation of neoplasms of benign and malignant nature.

Treatment methods

Superficial duodenitis does not have a clear clinical picture, so it is often confused with other pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract. An accurate diagnosis can be made only after carrying out the dianostic procedures:

  1. Blood test Allows you to determine the percentage of hemoglobin and the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation.
  2. Analysis of feces. Helps to fix the hidden blood.
  3. Fibrogastroduodenoscopy. It is performed using an endoscope, it helps to detect erosive damage to the walls and swelling of mucous membranes, hyperemia, hemorrhages, follicular formations on the mucous membranes, as well as atrophy of the intestinal walls.
  4. pH - metry. The procedure gives the opportunity to determine the gastric acidity.
  5. X-ray. Conducted using a special substance (in most cases, barium sulfate). In duodenitis, the test helps to detect ulcers on the intestinal walls, as well as the presence of constricted and dilated zones in the duodenum.

The treatment course is determined based on the results of laboratory and instrumental indices.

Drug therapy

The patient is prescribed antispasmodic drugs to eliminate pain and cramps. Drotaverin, Meverin, Ribola, No-Shpa are used. To eliminate vomiting, Circual and Motilium (intramuscular injections) are prescribed.

If superficial duodenitis is accompanied by erosive lesions, the use of enveloping agents such as Maalox, Almagel is recommended. To stabilize the gastric acidity, Reni or Gaviscon is prescribed, in order to relieve Famotidine or Quamatel. When erosive formations can be applied De - Zero, Omeprazole.

Therapeutic diet

A special diet is an important part of therapeutic therapy. The patient is recommended to use liquid porridges, jelly, mucous soups, steam omelets from vegetables for 14 days. Then steam meat patties, fish dishes, meat soups are introduced into the diet. Do not use products that irritate the intestinal mucosa.

Physiotherapy

As an additional measure, physiotherapy can be prescribed to patients. Are held:

  • magnetotherapy - the method is based on the process of impact of a static magnetic field on problem areas,
  • balneotherapy - the therapeutic effect is achieved by taking a bath with mineral water,
  • mud and paraffin applications,
  • ultrasound exposure
  • UHF epigastric zone - therapeutic effect on the zone using a high-frequency electromagnetic field.

The procedures help to restore blood circulation, increase the body's defenses and speedy regeneration of damaged duodenal mucosa.

Celery juice

Freshly squeezed celery juice is mixed with cabbage juice (1: 4). The resulting drink is taken 5 times a day, 100 ml for 9 days.

50 grams of propolis is poured half a liter of alcohol. The resulting composition put in a dark place for 20 days. Periodically you need to shake the solution so that the propolis is completely dissolved. 15 drops of tincture diluted in 1 tablespoon. milk with sugar. Take three times the day before meals.

From 0.5 kg of aloe leaves squeeze juice, which is mixed with 500 ml of red wine and 500 g of honey. Insist the resulting composition for 10 days. After the time expires, the infusion is filtered, the resulting liquid is poured into glass containers. Take the tincture according to the following scheme: the first week is taken for 1 hour. l 3 times a day after meals. During the second and third week, the amount of the healing drink is gradually increased to 1 tablespoon. At the onset of the fourth week, they return to the initial dosage. The course of treatment is 6 weeks.

Infusion from the medical fee

Take 2 parts of fruits of fennel, nettle, chamomile, mixed with the collection of naked licorice, calamus root, oregano (1 part). 50 g of crushed collection pour 1 liter of boiling water and put on a slow fire for 30 minutes. The resulting broth should be consumed three times a day, 150 ml.

Dietary compliance with the superficial form of duodenitis is very important. A strict diet takes place in 12 days, you need to take food in small portions (no more than 150 g) 5 times a day.

Such a diet includes liquid porridges on water, mucous soups from vegetables, boiled eggs, liquid omelets (not more than 1 time per day), sweet fruit and berries jelly, oat jelly, wheat bread not more than 100 g per day.

It is not allowed to use fried, spicy, pickled vegetables and fruits, bitter, seasonings, salt, sugar, meat, fish, sour, rye bread, potatoes, raw cabbage, coffee, whole grains. It is forbidden to smoke, use alcohol, carbonated beverages.

After the 12th day, boiled veal, rabbit, chicken breast are added to the ration. It is allowed to eat soups in meat broth of the second cooking. Useful broths of pharmaceutical chamomile, stomach and choleretic fees.

With proper organization of conservative and outpatient treatment, the prognosis is favorable. As a result of the therapy, the pain decreases, the condition of the stomach and intestines normalizes, the digestion process becomes stable.

If the patient has chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as problems with the cardiovascular and nervous systems, in addition to the treatment of duodenitis, it is recommended to pay attention to the affected organs - systems that can cause both the development and recurrence of superficial duodenitis.

Description of the disease

Superficial duodenitis pathology is an inflammation that occurs in the duodenal mucosa. At the same time, its enzymatic, motor, and organic functions change. Less commonly, edema occurs in other organs of the digestive system. When the surface form of inflammation is located only on the upper wall of the duodenum.

Often the disease accompanies other pathologies of the digestive tract. In rare cases, superficial duodenitis is an independent disease.

The exacerbation and detection of various pathologies of the digestive tract leads to the formation of duodenitis. For example, gastritis with high acidity - the contents enter the intestines, agitating and affecting the mucous membrane.

The appearance of superficial duodenitis due to improper lifestyle of the patient. The causes of the disease are as follows:

  • infections coming through the bile or toxic effects after poisoning,
  • improper nutrition - eating spicy, fatty foods, soda, spices, coffee leads to irritation of the duodenal mucosa, disrupting the digestive process,
  • stomach hyperplasia,
  • circulatory disorders - the structure of the mucous membrane is affected, causing duodenitis,
  • increased acid - pain in the stomach, nausea,
  • bad habits (smoking, alcohol),
  • chronic gastritis - provokes colitis, duodenitis and other exacerbations of the disease.

If there is at least one of these factors, then the risk of developing superficial duodenitis exists. If there are several - the probability increases a couple of times.

The first stage of development of superficial duodenitis passes without any major symptoms, which makes diagnosis difficult. Since this form becomes a complication of the gastrointestinal disease, which is present in the patient.

Therefore, symptoms of primary pathology are noted:

  • nausea, rarely vomiting,
  • loss of appetite,
  • non-durable, cramping nature, pain,
  • discomfort in the navel, abdomen,
  • heartburn, colitis, flatulence, belching,
  • upset stool (constipation, alternating diarrhea),
  • increased salivation, sweating,
  • malaise, fatigue, dizziness,
  • temperature rise.

When the inflammatory lesion from the superficial becomes chronic, such symptoms subside. And during an exacerbation, there is a high probability that the disease has increased the site of spread or inflammation has damaged the deepest layers of the duodenum.

Drug treatment

You may need the following medications:

  1. Antispasmodics (Drotaverin, No-Spa) - to relieve painful symptoms.
  2. Enveloping drugs (Almagel, Maalox) - when the duodenum inflammation is conjugated with erosive lesions. Additionally, you can take omeprazole, De-nol.
  3. Antiemetic (Domperidone, Motilium) - with emetic urging, intramuscular administration of drugs is used.
  4. To reduce the acid in the stomach - Gaviscon, Rennie.
  5. To reduce the irritating manifestation on the mucous membrane use Kvamatel, Famotidine.
  6. Antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Furazolidone) - may be needed to eliminate Helicobacter pylori.

It is possible to cure the disease, if you additionally take medicinal infusions with calendula, chamomile and more.

When inflammation of the walls of the duodenum is important to stick to a diet. It will help to establish the digestive system and prevent the subsequent development of pathology.

Take food should be 5-6 times a day at intervals of 4 hours. Food is allowed to consume boiled, steam or baked, and fried, spicy, salty - excluded. Also not recommended sweets, flour products, soda, alcohol, smoked meats. Limit intake of vegetables that adversely affect the intestinal mucosa.

Permitted foods and dishes:

  • food receptions allow lean meat, fish, seafood,
  • various liquid cereals, except oatmeal,
  • mucous soups,
  • wheat bread,
  • steam omelette

Immediately after eating you can not go to bed, it should take about 2 hours.

With the implementation of all recommendations, superficial duodenitis is cured, the patient recovers and achieves a stable remission. The main thing is to monitor the state of your health, if you experience pain or other feelings of discomfort, you should consult a doctor. You can not use drugs yourself, so as not to aggravate the situation.

Watch the video: Stomach Ulcer. Nucleus Health (April 2020).