Every day a huge number of people encounter poisonings, and unfortunately nothing can be done with such terrifying statistics. This kind of problem is understandable, because the modern world is full of diverse products, which contains in its composition dyes, chemicals, preservatives, and sometimes poisons. Particularly relevant poisoning in the summer, when the air temperature is quite high. Treatment in this case does not require delay, so we will devote our article to this problem, namely, what is the treatment of food poisoning at home?
In order to understand how this disease is treated, it is necessary to understand in what cases it occurs. Food poisoning occurs when the poison enters the body with poisoned, stale or low-quality food. Also, in our modern world, this is the way it is, many unscrupulous manufacturers add banned substances to their products and do not indicate them on the packaging in the “product mix” column. Therefore, below we take a closer look at what constitutes food poisoning (symptoms and treatment, types, classification), and also consider, in what cases urgent medical care is required?
Symptoms of food poisoning
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Increased body temperature.
- Abdominal pain.
- Low blood pressure.
The reasons that most often provoke the disease
- Toxins that are found in plants and meat of animals, in particular mushrooms, as well as improperly cooked seafood - fish, shellfish.
- Infections (bacteria, viruses).
- Pesticides that are contained in food, or poisons with which they are processed.
Most often these are the causes of food poisoning.
- Clear the stomach. The first thing to do is cause vomiting. To do this, press on the root of the language. It is more expedient to do this not with a finger, but with a clean teaspoon. If there is not enough natural urge, drink a liter of water at room temperature to flush your stomach. You can also prepare a soda solution or a solution of manganese. For the first, one teaspoon of soda is enough for one liter of water at room temperature. If you want to prepare a solution of manganese, you should be extremely careful here, because if the manganese crystals are not sufficiently dissolved, a burn of the gastric mucosa can occur. Therefore, before drinking, dilute the product in a small amount of water, and then add directly to the water to drink. It should be remembered that it is necessary to induce vomiting until the masses become transparent. If it is not possible to prepare solutions, for example, due to poor health, you can drink ordinary water at room temperature without gas. It will not only clear the stomach, but also replace the lost fluid.
- Replacing lost fluid. After the stomach is cleared, you should provide plenty of body fluids. Without this, treatment of poisoning at home will be ineffective. It is necessary to drink often, but in small portions, so as not to provoke a stretching of the stomach. In this case, you should not use milk or juices, as they can cause the acceleration of the development of bacteria. As a drink, the best option would be a weak tea. It should be remembered that sugar should not be added to the liquid used. Also, oral rehydration is well suited to compensate for water losses through drinking. These are medicines that contain potassium, sodium, chlorine and other equally useful substances, which are selected in the right concentrations and proportions. Pharmacy names of drugs - "Regidron", "Marathonik", "Orasan", "Reosolan", "Tour", "Citraglukosolan". These funds, as a rule, have a powder form and are diluted in water.
- Some independently carry out the treatment of food poisoning at home, using cleansing enemas. There are different opinions about this, because their use or the use of drugs that have an anchoring effect can aggravate the situation even more. Therefore, such methods of treatment should be agreed with the doctor.
- If after the above actions, an improvement has come, you can take activated carbon, Smektu, Atoksil, Enterosgel. These drugs adsorb on themselves all poisons, toxins and quickly remove them from the body.
- Relaxation. Provide your body on the first day of food poisoning rest. Limit yourself to food, and better starve, and in the next few days follow a strict diet.
- For several weeks, you should take enzyme preparations (Mezim, Enzimtal, Festal) and probiotics (Bifiform, Hilak-Forte, Probifor) in accordance with the attached instructions.
Below we will understand what constitutes food poisoning in children, home treatment, emergency care.
If you are interested in the question of how to cure food poisoning at home in children, then you need to be extremely careful. It should be remembered that any manifestations of poisoning in children should serve as a reason for seeking medical attention.
In the meantime, the doctor did not come, give the baby help.
- If after half an hour after eating, the first symptoms of poisoning appear, and there is no vomiting, call it. For this:
- Give the kid a drink 1-2 glasses of water. After this, hold it firmly with one hand, and with the second hand, insert two fingers, as deeply as possible into your mouth, and press down on the root of the tongue. If no vomiting occurs after this, move your fingers.
- Instead of fingers, you can use a spoon.
- Despite the resistance of the baby, attempts to induce vomiting must be made without fail.
Do not feed the child. Treatment of poisoning in the home will be effective if the body at this time rest from food. In no case do not force the baby to eat.
Actively water the child. For this, treatment of food poisoning at home in children should be accompanied by the following actions:
- do not give a lot of water, so as not to provoke a stretching of the stomach, in this case it is more expedient to drink the child several sips every few minutes,
- the temperature of the water should correspond to the temperature of the child’s body, so the liquid is faster absorbed into the blood
- do not add sugar to the drink and do not give sugary drinks,
- if possible, give the baby an oral rehydration solution,
- optimal drinks can be tea, mineral water without gas, compotes,
- if the child refuses to drink what you give him, then let him drink what he wants (juice and sugary drinks as much as possible dilute with water).
When do you need an immediate call for an ambulance?
- A child cannot drink water due to abundant and constant vomiting.
- If you know that baby poisoned mushrooms or seafood.
- There is a rash on the skin.
- Swelling appeared on the joints.
- The child is hard to swallow.
- The kid is vaguely talking.
- Skin and mucous membranes turned yellow.
- Blood in vomit and feces.
- There is no urination for more than 6 hours.
- There was a weakness in the muscles.
Diet after poisoning
Treatment of food poisoning at home should be accompanied by a diet. Do not eat fatty and spicy foods. It is necessary to limit the use of dairy products. Alcohol and smoking should also be excluded for a long time. Meat, vegetables and fish should be steamed. Eat small meals every 2-3 hours. In the diet should include porridge, boiled in water, especially those that contain a large amount of fiber. Drink strong black tea, decoction of chamomile, wild rose.
General principles for the treatment of food poisoning and differences from the treatment of intestinal infections
Light food poisoning in the total mass, especially those that often occur in everyday life, do not belong to serious illnesses. Even without treatment, such conditions go away on their own within 1-3 days. The main directions of treatment:
- elimination of intoxication and early elimination of toxins from the body,
- dehydration prophylaxis (symptoms),
- restoration of intestinal biocenosis,
- restoration of the gastrointestinal tract through a sparing diet.
The principal difference in the treatment of intestinal infections is often prescribed etiotropic treatment for the destruction of the pathogen actively replicating in the body (antibiotics or antiviral drugs). In addition, the treatment of intestinal infections (symptoms of dysentery, symptoms of salmonellosis, botulism, rotavirus, enterovirus - symptoms of intestinal flu, etc.) is a long process, often occurring only in a hospital.
First aid for food poisoning
The earliest treatment of food poisoning, which actually plays the role of first aid to the victim, is extremely important - because the earlier the fight against the incoming toxic substance is started, the sooner the body will cope with intoxication.
As a rule, the body itself sends a signal about the need to empty the stomach when a poor-quality product got there. But the vomiting of the natural urge is not enough to flush the stomach as much as possible.
After the first attack of vomiting, you need to drink about half a liter of warm water, it can be salted, with the addition of potassium permanganate or soda (a weak solution!). With the next attack of vomiting, the main amount of food masses will be released, but flushing should be carried out, if possible, before throwing clean water out of the stomach.
Of course, it is not worthwhile to provoke vomiting vigorously if there is no desire for this - probably the spoiled product has already left the stomach and is in the intestine.
- Compensation for lost fluid
Diarrhea and vomiting are protective reactions of the body, but in addition to removing toxins, fluid is removed and lost, the volume of which must be replenished. At home, after each bowel movement or vomiting, you need to take about 200 grams of liquid, but only in small sips: non-carbonated mineral water, boiled water, and glucose-saline solution (3 tablespoons sugar and 1 tsp for 1 liter of boiled water. salt).
- Natural bowel cleansing
The main mistake in diarrhea associated with food poisoning is an attempt to stop it by taking imodium and similar drugs. Diarrhea is the fastest and most massive elimination of toxin from the body. The delay of the feces in the intestine is equivalent to a blockage in the sewer, because the processes of decay and absorption of toxic products will continue intensively. The question of prescribing antidiarrheal drugs is decided only by a doctor.
Earlier, at the peak of symptoms, it was recommended to refrain from eating food, especially since the appetite for poisoning is always absent. The gastrointestinal tract functions incompletely, therefore it is necessary to withstand medical hunger during the first days of the disease. However, hunger is not used now in the treatment, since the intestine and stomach must restore their epithelium, and this is impossible without food. Of course, if you do not want to eat, then they do not force it. But especially to observe hunger is not recommended, especially for children.
When hospitalization is required
In most cases, manifestations of food poisoning can be managed at home.
Hospitalization is indicated for the following types of food poisoning:
- almost any food poisoning in a child under 3 years old. Treatment of food poisoning in a younger child is carried out only under the supervision of medical personnel, since vomiting and diarrhea quickly lead the body to a state of dehydration, which is very dangerous in childhood. In addition, it is difficult to make a small child drink a large amount of liquid, while in the hospital it is possible to administer intravenous rehydration solutions,
- food poisoning in pregnant and elderly patients,
- poisoning by mushrooms, poisonous plants, inedible liquids and compounds,
- severe food poisoning followed by:
- diarrhea more than 10 times a day,
- diarrhea with blood,
- high temperature persisting during the second day of the disease,
- indomitable vomiting
- strong growing weakness
- poisoning with increasing symptoms for 2-3 days of illness.
Varieties of food poisoning
Modern medicine divides food poisoning into two main groups:
- microbial origin - toxicoinfections, toxicosis, mixed,
- non-microbial origin, which are caused by poisonous animal tissues and poisonous plants.
Sometimes the cause of the occurrence cannot be established.
Among the food products that carry the potential danger of poisoning, emit:
- raw eggs
- fish and meat
- dairy and dairy products,
- pickles and homemade canned food,
- confectionery with protein and butter creams,
- catering dishes, in the preparation of which sanitary norms were violated,
- products with damaged packaging.
The clinical picture depends on the amount of poor-quality food products or toxic substances in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as on the type of pathogen or type of toxin. Depending on this, the duration of the incubation period of the disease can vary from several hours to several days.
The first symptoms of the disease are sudden pain in the abdomen, and after a short period of time diarrhea can join them (however, its presence is not necessary). At this stage, nausea and vomiting may occur with a high degree of probability. Symptoms of food poisoning of this period occur as a result of the negative impact on the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines of microbes and their toxins (symptoms of gastroenterocolitis).
An organism’s response to an infection is intoxication resulting from the entry of toxins into the blood. The degree of intoxication determines the severity of the patient. The main symptoms of intoxication include:
- headache and general weakness of the body,
- fever, chills,
- nausea and vomiting
- muscle and joint pain.
Vomiting and diarrhea accompanying food poisoning can lead to fluid loss in the body.
The symptoms of dehydration are as follows:
- diarrhea, nausea and vomiting,
- general weakness
- heart palpitations
- decreased urination
- dry mucous membranes.
Food poisoning treatment at home
For mild ailments, no specific treatment of poisoning is required. After 1-3 days, if a gentle diet is observed and a heavy drink is taken, the patient's condition returns to normal. In severe cases of poisoning, treatment at home is dangerous.
Drug treatment will be more effective and will consist of the following elements.
1. Rehydration therapy, as the main method of treating food poisoning. The use of rehydrants leads to the restoration of the body's lack of water and electrolytes. Rehydration is carried out orally with the help of Regidron, Oralit, Litrozol, Chlorazole. In severe cases or when fluid volume is restored in young children, rehydration is performed parenterally using Lactosol, Acesol, Trisol, Chlosol, Quartasol.
2. Sorption therapy. Enterosorbents during the absence of vomiting and in the intervals between taking other medications help to quickly eliminate toxins. Adsorption involves the use of the following drugs: black or white coal, Enterosgel, Smekta, Polysorb, Sorbogel, Polifan, etc.
Sorption therapy is not carried out at high body temperature, and also requires maximum caution when prescribing to children and elderly patients.
3. Pain therapy. Food poisoning with an intense pain syndrome, which is accompanied by diarrhea with painful urge to defecate, should be treated with antispasmodics: No-Spa, Spazgan, Drotaverinum, Spazmalgon.
4. Antibacterial and antimicrobial therapy. Drugs in this group are prescribed extremely rarely, as they can aggravate the pattern of dysbacteriosis along with poisonings. Antimicrobials and antibiotics are prescribed for mixed poisonings (Ftalazol, Intrix, Nifuroksazid, Ersefuril).
5. Antidiarrheal and antiemetic therapy. Due to the fact that diarrhea and vomiting are protective reactions of the body in case of poisoning, you should not immediately deal with them. But in cases where these symptoms are very pronounced, the patient is prescribed antiemetic drugs (Motilium, TSerukal) and drugs for diarrhea (Loperamide, Trimebutin).
6. Antipyretic therapy. Increased body temperature in case of poisoning does not reach high levels. However, some adults and children do not tolerate hypothermia poorly. Such patients are prescribed Ibuprofen, Ibuklin, Paracetamol.
7. Therapy, restoring the intestinal microflora. Food poisoning disrupts the normal intestinal biocenosis. It requires recovery with the help of the following drugs: Bifidumbacterin, Bioflor, Linex, Bionorm, Enterochermina, aktisubtil.
Treatment of folk remedies
There are many home remedies for food poisoning. If the poisoning in an adult is not very acute, you can safely use the recipes of traditional medicine.
- Every 15 minutes after the first signs appear, take 3-5 grams of activated carbon or specially treated clay within an hour.
- Every hour for 3 hours take 1-2 g of vitamin C.
- Broth root Althea with the addition of honey for ingestion of 1 tablespoon 4 times a day.
- Treatment of poisoning at home is carried out with a decoction of dill with honey added to take half a cup before meals.
- Infusion made from ground ginger, you need to take every half hour on a tablespoon.
- Infusion of cinnamon is used as a natural sorbent and antispasmodic.
- Broth wormwood and yarrow is used to cleanse the body of toxic substances.
- You can stop the multiplication of bacteria using juice squeezed from three lemons, with the addition of water and sugar. The resulting tool is drunk in one gulp.
- Mixture for single use, prepared from 150 g of orange juice and raw eggs. After that, during the day you need to drink as much water as possible.
If a minor is sick, then consult a doctor before treating food poisoning in a child.
Proper nutrition in most cases is a major factor in the treatment of poisoning. It helps to restore normal water-salt balance, normalize the work of the gastrointestinal tract, prevent depletion of the body.
On the first day of the symptoms of food poisoning, special importance is given not to food but to drink. An adult should drink at least 2 liters of fluid per day. In order not to provoke vomiting you need to drink in small portions, but often. As safe drinks, they recommend: sweet tea, boiled water, lemon-acidified water, dogrose broth, fruit drinks, compotes.
When relieving signs of acute poisoning, the patient should follow a sparing diet, which involves:
- the number of meals per day - 5-6 times,
- small portion volume,
- limiting fatty foods
- restriction of the use of products containing carbohydrates (vegetables and fruits),
- introduction of animal protein into the diet,
- food must be easily digestible (semi-liquid consistency).
Food poisoning is very easy to provoke low-quality food products, as well as expired. Keep your kitchen clean, disinfect kitchen appliances.
Use fresh produce, wash fruit and vegetables thoroughly. Rinse the herbs under running water.
Keep cooked food in a sealed container. Yesterday's food is better to heat treat before consumption.
Observe personal hygiene, wash hands before cooking. Remember that the health of your intestines depends on your food.
What bacteria cause food poisoning?
The polyetiological nature of food poisoning is determined by the fact that various bacteria can lead to the development of pathology. These are mainly representatives of conditionally pathogenic microflora of the intestine and other human organs. Under normal conditions and with sufficient activity of the immune system, they are constantly in small numbers on the mucous membranes. When released into the nutrient medium (food), they begin to actively multiply there, releasing toxins and waste products. Such major causative agents of food poisoning include staphylococci, streptococci, E. coli, some types of clostridia and protea. Less commonly, the development of food poisoning infection can be caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All pathogens release toxins in the process of vital activity (exotoxin), as well as after the death and destruction of a bacterial cell (endotoxin). The common features of all causative agents of food poisoning are their high resistance in the environment and the ability to multiply in food. To the main solutions of antiseptics in the usual concentration of these bacteria are unstable and die quickly. They are also detrimental to heat and sunlight.
Causes of food poisoning
Foodborne infectious pathogens are widespread. The only way to infect the bet of this pathology is alimentary, the disease develops only by eating an infected food product or dish. At the same time, an important condition for the development of pathology is the accumulation in the food product of the microorganism and its toxins. The incidence of food toxicoinfection is higher in the summer period, which is associated with the frequent storage of food in hot conditions, which contributes to the development of bacteria in them. Contamination (contamination, seeding) of food products most often occurs in violation of the technology of making dishes, improper storage (especially if the temperature is not followed). They can get food from a patient with various human infectious processes, often this happens when there are pustular wounds on the hands of a person engaged in cooking. Contribute to the contamination of food flies, which spread bacteria. The main products in which the most frequent development and multiplication of bacteria of causative agents of food poisoning are pastries with cream (cakes, pies), meat products (especially products prepared by cold smoking), various salads with mayonnaise. For these products, it is sometimes sufficient to stay in high temperatures (summer time) for later use, which can lead to food poisoning when consumed. The incidence is characterized by the occurrence of sporadic pathology (single cases) or collective poisoning, which is often the case at various public events, accompanied by the consumption of food. For food toxicoinfection, a characteristic feature is that even when eating the same dish, not all people fall ill. This is due to the mosaic accumulation of toxin and bacteria in the dish.
The mechanism of occurrence and the course of poisoning
The entrance gate for bacteria and their toxins in food poisoning is the mucous membrane of the stomach and intestines. For the development of pathology an important condition is a large number of bacteria and toxins that enter the human body with food. At the same time, the body is primarily affected by toxins, which lead to the development of such effects:
- Impact on the temperature regulation center, located in the medulla oblongata, which leads to its increase.
- Reducing the tone of all the arteries of the body - reducing systemic blood pressure.
- Effects on the nerve receptors of the gastric and intestinal mucosa, leading to the development of a feeling of severe nausea with subsequent vomiting. In this regard, vomiting is primarily a protective reaction of the body, aimed at the early elimination of toxins from the stomach and intestines.
- Disruption of water absorption from the small and large intestines - develops with the further penetration of bacterial toxins into the lower parts of the gastrointestinal tract, as a result diarrhea (diarrhea) develops. With timely medical care and the implementation of adequate therapeutic measures, diarrhea does not develop, since the toxin is bound and excreted from the body before it enters the large intestine.
- The development of the inflammatory reaction in the gastric, duodenal and small intestine mucosa is the result of the direct damaging effects of toxins on epithelial cells. This develops a violation of parietal digestion, the synthesis of digestive enzymes and the absorption of nutrients into the blood.
Toxins of some pathogens (clostridia) can cause the development of inflammation in liver cells (hepatocytes) and necrotic-ulcerative changes in the mucous membrane of the stomach and small intestine in the form of their local defects. Also, the pathogenesis of food poisoning may be accompanied by the direct effect of bacteria on the mucous membrane of the digestive tract, which attach to it and lead to an inflammatory reaction. This generally aggravates the course of foodborne toxicoinfection. With prolonged vomiting and diarrhea, dehydration (dehydration) develops in the body, caused by loss of fluid and mineral salts. Significant loss of calcium, potassium salts leads to impaired nerve impulses in neurons and neuromuscular synapses, which can cause the development of skeletal muscle tonic-clonic convulsions, impaired rhythm of heart contractions (arrhythmias) and the central nervous system and confusion of consciousness up to its complete absence). The decrease in the volume of fluid in the body is the cause of thickening of the blood and impaired renal function (renal failure).
Symptoms of food poisoning in adults
The incubation period for food toxicoinfection is short and ranges from several hours to a day. Pathology develops rapidly and rapidly, characterized by the appearance of several main symptoms:
- Nausea - the very first symptom of poisoning, accompanied by belching air with an unpleasant smell and a feeling of heaviness in the stomach.
- Vomiting - develops at the height of nausea, brings temporary relief. Vomiting is repeated, first food residues, then liquid and mucus. In severe antiperistalsis against vomiting, it may be accompanied by the release of bile and the contents of the small intestine.
- A rise in temperature is the main sign of intoxication and the entry of toxins into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on the amount of toxin and type of pathogen of food poisoning, the severity of temperature rises from 37.5 to 40.0 º C.
- Headache, general weakness, aching muscles and joints are signs of intoxication, the severity of which depends on the severity of the course of foodborne toxicoinfection.
- Abdominal pain, which is a reaction of the intestines to toxins and bacteria in the form of a spasm of smooth muscles of its walls.
- A progressive decrease in the level of systemic arterial pressure is the result of toxic paresis (decrease) in arterial tone.
- The development of diarrhea, in the case of necrotic process in the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract in the stool appear streaks of blood, which indicates the ingestion of clostridial toxins.
- Dehydration syndrome - a decrease in fluid volume and concentration of mineral salts that develops with prolonged vomiting and severe diarrhea is accompanied by a feeling of thirst, dizziness, a decrease in skin elasticity and tissue turgor.
The severity of symptoms in food poisoning in adults is different, depending on the severity of the pathological process and intoxication. The greater the number of bacteria, their toxins and waste products enters the human body with food, the more severe the degree of manifestation of all symptoms.
In severe foodborne illness, children and weakened people may develop complications. The main ones are:
- Infectious toxic shock (ITSH) - a terrible complication that threatens the life of the victim. It develops when large amounts of various bacterial toxins are absorbed into the bloodstream, which lead to a significant reduction in blood pressure until collapse. Also, when ITSH develops a coagulation disorder in the form of disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC) with the formation of a large number of small blood clots in all vessels.
- Sepsis (blood poisoning) - develops in weakened people, characterized by the ingress of bacteria from the digestive tract into the blood, their distribution in the body and sedimentation in various organs. At the same time, liver abscess most frequently develops - a cavity in the organ filled with purulent contents.
- Dysbacteriosis - a late complication with a violation of the normal intestinal microflora and a predominance of representatives of conditionally pathogenic flora.
- Hypovolemia is a pronounced decrease in the amount of fluid and mineral salts in the body, in which seizures, renal failure and a breakdown of the organs of the nervous and cardiovascular systems develop.
Late treatment of food poisoning increases the risk of its severe course with the development of complications.
When specific symptoms of food poisoning appear, therapeutic measures begin immediately, without a diagnosis. Specific diagnostics are performed during an epidemiological survey in order to identify the source of infection in case of mass food poisoning. For this, bacteriological examination of vomitus, swabs from the stomach and intestines is performed. In this case, the bacterium is emitted, causing the foodborne toxicoinfection, and its identification is carried out - determination of the type and serological type.To find out the degree of functional changes in the body, an additional complete blood and urine test is taken. In case of development of complications, instrumental diagnostics is carried out.
Treatment of food poisoning in adults at home
There is no need for hospitalization in the hospital with mild and moderate food poisoning, the treatment is carried out at home and includes the following therapeutic measures:
- Gastric lavage is the very first event that takes place immediately after the onset of symptoms of food poisoning for the rapid elimination of toxins before they are absorbed into the blood. At home, gastric lavage is carried out "restaurant method" - a person drinks about a liter of warm (about 20-25º C) water for a short period of time, then causes a gag reflex, irritating the root of the tongue and the soft palate with the fingers. The procedure for complete cleansing of the stomach must be repeated up to 10 times.
- The use of sorbents - drugs that due to their physico-chemical properties bind toxins in the intestine and bring them out. The modern representatives of this group of drugs include Enterosgel, Fosfalyugel, Sorbeks. It is very important to take sorbents only after washing the stomach, and also 1 hour before taking other medicines.
- Fluid recovery using special rehydration solutions (Regidron), which are taken fractionally (about 15 ml - a tablespoon), but often (every 10-15 minutes).
- The implementation of dietary recommendations - it is recommended not to take food on the first day after the onset of food poisoning. For 2 days you can eat galete liver with sweet tea, rice porridge, boiled in water. For 3-4 days the diet is expanded, with the exception of ingestion of dairy products, fried, fatty foods, salinity, pickles and spices.
- Symptomatic treatment - includes the use of anti-inflammatory, antipyretic drugs (Nimesil, Paracetamol) and antispasmodics (No-spa), which reduce the symptoms of general intoxication and abdominal pain.
Severe food poisoning with severe dehydration, indomitable vomiting requires hospitalization in a hospital where, along with general measures, fluid and mineral salts are replenished with intravenous drip with special solutions for infusion (Trisol, saline, 5% glucose solution). In case of development of complications and signs of bacterial inflammation of any localization, antibiotics in the form of tablets or solutions for parenteral (intramuscular or intravenous) administration are required.
What not to do with food poisoning?
- Putting a heating pad on the abdomen.
- Drink fixative drugs for diarrhea.
- Put an enema to pregnant women, children, the elderly with diarrhea.
- Drink milk or water with gas.
- Do not induce vomiting in any way if:
- unconscious man
- there is confidence that a person has poisoned himself with alkali, kerosene, gasoline or acid.
If all of the above recommendations have been followed, then the likelihood that you will quickly cure food poisoning is large enough. Do not forget that only a doctor should assess the severity of the poisoning, because timely medical assistance will help to avoid serious health problems. It should be remembered that at the first symptomatic manifestations of poisoning in children and the elderly, you should consult a doctor.
Treatment procedures for toxicoinfection
For therapy developed effective methods. To remove toxins from the stomach - washing. The essence of manipulation is the introduction of fluids followed by vomiting to dissolve and dispose of toxic compounds. Popular recipes for washing at home - soda, potassium permanganate (manganese). To prepare the drug, add a spoonful of calcium bicarbonate in 1-1.5 liters of water. To cause a gag reflex by pressing your fingers on the root of the tongue should be after drinking a small amount of liquid. The procedure is repeated until the vomit is clean.
Medicines are used to remove sorbents that help excrete toxic compounds from the body. Activated carbon is a popular and affordable drug for the treatment of food poisoning. Dose per 10 kg of weight - 1 tablet. On average, an adult person crushes 7–8 tablets into powder and gives to drink a small amount of water. In severe intoxication syndrome, the dose increases.
If you need selective sorbents, you can take white coal. The tool acts directionally: binds poisons, but does not remove vitamins from the intestine. The dosage of white coal - 3-4 tablets one-time. More expensive sorbents - Enterosgel, Laktofiltrum, Smekta. For their use does not require pre-grinding. The drug comes in ready-to-use form.
Drinking poisoning treatment
Fluid after food intoxication is prescribed to dilute the toxin, eliminate dehydration. To maintain water balance, to compensate for fluid loss, non-carbonated mineral water, tea without sugar is recommended. Daily need for dehydration - 2-3 liters. The liquid must be salted according to the following scheme: one liter per liter. salt. The solution is alternated with sweet tea. For correction of water-salt balance, rehydration agents are used: “Oralit”, “Regidron”. Solutions and powders contain glucose, mineral salts that prevent dehydration.
Treatment with symptomatic pills
There is no intoxication that does not lead to the pathology of internal organs. In toxic syndrome, toxins in the intestine destroy the saprophytic flora (bifidum and lactobacilli). Physiologically, it helps break down food, synthesize B vitamins. When dysbacteriosis develops a number of severe conditions. To compensate for the lack of lactic acid bacteria, Mezim, Linex, Hilak Forte, Bacteriostatin, Bifatsid and other drugs have been developed.
Probiotics are prescribed after the elimination of symptoms of acute intoxication. Treatment of poisoning with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as "Ibuprofen", "Paracetamol", "Nise", is carried out when the temperature curve rises above 37.5. It is not recommended to use painkillers, as they complicate the diagnosis of pathology. Antimicrobial drugs are prescribed for acute toxicoinfection as the best way to eliminate a bacterial infection. Diet after poisoning
Intoxication weakens the body. The first two days, the patient was recommended strict bed rest, indicated to drink plenty of water and food is prohibited. The stomach wall is inflamed, so any external irritation can provoke repeated symptoms. Unsweetened tea with bread crumbs taken 2-3 days after intoxication. Boiled vegetables, mashed potatoes, oatmeal porridge on water are allowed. Active treatment is carried out after the improvement of the condition. The body returns to normal after 3 days, a few days later there is flatulence, weakness, abdominal pain. It is necessary to consult a doctor if diarrhea does not disappear six hours after treatment.
Folk recipes for getting rid of food intoxication
The following remedies are less commonly used, but are sometimes recommended by doctors along with pharmaceutical preparations due to the availability of ingredients. If you daily use a spoonful of millet, ground on a coffee grinder, you get the perfect medicine, which they drink every hour until the condition improves. If immediately after food poisoning infection to drink 8 drops of iodine, the growth of bacteria is prevented. You can not increase the dosage to prevent increased irritation of the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. Egg foam helps with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. Preparing a medicine is simple: beat fresh protein, mix with milk, add a spoonful of sugar. Drink all the ingredients at once.
Breisu tincture - composition, therapeutic effect
The recipe is as follows:
- collect the silverweed roots, chop, dry for three days,
- put in a dark bottle, pour 0.5 liters of alcohol, insist 3 weeks,
- after straining add 300 g of silverweed,
- wait 20 days, drain and mix the raw materials again,
- after 3 weeks a medicinal mixture is obtained.
Breuss tincture helps to beat dysentery in 24 hours. True, doctors doubt its effectiveness, so they are not prescribed to patients.
In conclusion, people should be warned against inattention to food in the summer. According to statistics, the main cause of intoxication becomes the use of expired products, conditionally edible mushrooms with improper heat treatment, canned food.
In case of food poisoning, the first symptoms may appear within half an hour after consuming harmful substances. In some cases, this period may take up to a day. As practice shows, if not provide first aid properly, the symptoms will progress substantially, which will adversely affect the health and well-being of the person.
With food poisoning, it is easy to determine the symptoms:
- constant nausea
- reflex vomiting with food particles and stomach acid in the contents,
- excessive salivation,
- weakness and dizziness,
- nervous system disorder.
After eating poor-quality food, the patient may have symptoms of poisoning for up to 10 days. This can manifest itself in the strong formation of gas, abdominal pain and weakness.
Varieties of treatment
If the poisoning was not severe, the patient does not need special treatment. After a few days, the situation is normalized with a strict diet. When a patient has severe complications, it must be placed in the hospital under the supervision of a physician. But if there is no such possibility, then you need to save a loved one with the help of medication.
Sorbents are excellent tools for combating intoxication. Such drugs during the absence of gag reflex can be used for the rapid removal of toxins from the body. White and black coal, Enterosgel, Smektu, Sorbex, etc. are used for such purposes. These preparations are not recommended for use at high temperatures. But you also need to be careful when using sorbents in children.
If severe abdominal pain and diarrhea is felt, then such symptoms should be removed with the help of antispasmodics: No-Spa, Spazmalgon, etc.
An important factor in recovery is ridding the body of harmful bacteria and germs. Doctors rarely recommend the means of such a group, as this may cause dysbacteriosis. Such drugs are prescribed for severe poisoning.
Sometimes used antidiarrheal and gag therapy. Due to the fact that severe diarrhea and gag reflex are protective reactions of the body, it is not necessary to fight them at the first appearance. But if the symptoms are strongly pronounced, then the patient may drink antiemetic and antidiarrheal drugs. You can use the most popular: Loperamide, Tremebutin, etc.
In the case of a strong temperature in a patient, it should be immediately lowered. As a rule, the body temperature in food poisoning is low. Nevertheless, many adults and children do not tolerate hyperthermia. You can fight it with the help of Ibuprofen, Ibuklina and other antipyretic drugs.
With such a disease, the restoration of intestinal microflora is a must for rapid recovery. To do this, use: Bioflor, Bifidumbakterin, Lineks, Enterohermin and others.
Proper nutrition and diet can help in the fight against poisoning no worse than medicines and folk remedies. This is the main part of the fight against intoxication and poor health. With the help of a diet you can achieve the restoration of water-salt balance in the body, the normalization of the gastrointestinal tract and digestion.
Nevertheless, on the first day of the onset of signs of poisoning, special attention is given to water, not food. If an adult has the first symptoms of the disease, then he needs to drink at least two liters of water per day to cleanse the body. In order not to provoke vomiting, it is necessary to use water in small portions throughout the day. But we should not forget that with a strong intoxication, it is necessary to immediately induce vomiting to cleanse the body. For this you can use not only plain water. You can use tea, water with lemon, broth hips, as well as fruit drinks, fruit drinks, etc.
To get rid of intoxication and signs of severe poisoning, you must follow a strict diet:
- eat food per day 5−6 times
- portions should be small
- can not eat fatty foods
- not to eat a lot of foods that contain large amounts of carbohydrates,
- you need to eat animal protein,
- can only eat light food.
Of course, if you have acute symptoms, you should refrain from eating food. It will not be difficult to do this, since there is no appetite for poisoning due to the inadequate work of the gastrointestinal tract. After the peak of poisoning, when the symptoms subside, you need to follow a strict diet. Completely exclude from the diet of spicy, fatty and heavy foods, as well as alcohol and dairy products. At the same time food should be fractional throughout the day.
There are many ways to deal with poisoning at home. You can use both medicines and traditional medicine. In the case when the patient is not severely poisoned, and he does not need hospitalization, you can use folk remedies.
For the treatment of food poisoning at home, you can use:
- Infusion of cinnamon. This tool removes well spasms and intoxication, as it is a natural sorbent and antispasmodic. To do this, in a glass of boiled water, add half a dessert spoon of cinnamon in a ground form. After 15 minutes, you need to strain and eat in small sips throughout the day.
- Ginger tea. In case of nausea in a patient you need to drink a cup of ginger tea. For its preparation, you need to take 1 teaspoon of grated ginger and pour a glass of hot water (in no case boiling water, as useful properties are lost). Let stand for five minutes and can be consumed. Sugar should be added to your liking.
- A decoction of dill and honey. Such a plant as dill is also a sorbent, like cinnamon, and well removes toxins from the body and normalizes the flow of the gag reflex. And honey, in turn, restores the level of potassium, which in large volumes out of the body with vomiting and diarrhea. To prepare the medicine you need to take 1 teaspoon of dill and pour a glass of boiling water. Infuse for 2-3 minutes, and then add one teaspoon of honey. One liter of tincture must be taken within a day.
- Lemon juice. This product fights against viruses, inflammatory processes, and also has antibacterial properties. His acid fights bacteria that caused food poisoning. It is necessary to squeeze the juice from half a lemon and add 1 or 2 spoons of sugar. It should be drunk throughout the day in small sips. If desired, you can mix water with lemon juice in a ratio of 1 to 5.
- Decoction of wormwood and millennial. These substances also fight toxins. It is necessary to take one teaspoon of these herbs in a dry form and steam for 15 minutes in a glass of boiling water. The resulting broth is divided into five parts and consumed during the day.
- Banana. This herb has a huge amount of potassium, which is very necessary for food poisoning.Moreover, bananas are perfectly digested by the stomach and are very light foods.
- Caraway. It relieves well the inflammation of the stomach, which is badly damaged after poisoning. One teaspoon of crushed cumin seeds should be washed down with a glass of warm water.
- Honey. He perfectly relieves stomach disorders after poisoning, and also has antibacterial and antifungal properties. Honey can be treated without diluting it, or added to tea and water. One teaspoon of natural honey is enough 1-2 times a day.
- Althea The roots of this plant must be crushed, and the resulting gruel mixed with water at the rate of 1 teaspoon per 100 ml of water. If desired, you can add honey and take every half hour.
In order to recover from food poisoning at home, no need to make special efforts. You just need to follow the general recommendations of doctors about this. When complications need to go to the hospital. But it is better not to expose oneself to food poisoning, and also not to neglect preventive measures.
Types of poisoning
Before independent actions aimed at the treatment of food poisoning and their consequences, you need to remember that the classification of this disease involves two types:
- Acute food toxicosis and toxicological infections.
- Toxic species poisoning.
The first type of illness people get through the fault of poor-quality or overdue, spoiled food, food contaminated with various microorganisms. Often, microbial or bacteriological-type food poisoning can manifest itself in a “response” to non-compliance with conventional hygiene and basic sanitation, such as washing hands before eating.
This is the most common cause of poisoning during snacks along the way, fast food, various burgers, shawarma and the rest of the range of stalls. It is quite possible to cope with this type of ailment on your own, referring to a doctor only when necessary, if digestive upset is extremely difficult.
Non-microbial poisonings of the second type occur when poisons and toxic toxic substances enter the body, for example, when eating inedible mushrooms, berries or chemicals, the same tablets.
If there is an idea that the disorder may be precisely for such reasons, an urgent need to consult a doctor. Intoxication, which is not bacterial in nature, is not treated at home, only under the supervision of specialists in stationary conditions.
Also, if there was a poisoning during breastfeeding in both the mother and the baby, medical professional assistance is obligatory. Self-treatment does not allow this situation, as they can be harmed both by the mother and the baby.
After the first aid is provided, the treatment is determined and started, a number of other questions arise:
- When and what to eat after poisoning.
- After how many hours does the treatment effect appear.
- What you need to do to assist the poisoned organism.
The answer to these questions is also simple.
As a rule, in the first day, the patient does not want and cannot eat. To maintain the body will be very useful to drink vegetable or cereal broth, without spices, slightly salted.
As soon as such a symptom goes away, like gagging, you need to start eating - mashed potatoes, the same gruel from other vegetables, and liquid porridge on the water - rice or buckwheat. Food should be lean, without oil and flavorings, easy to swallow and assimilate.
Experts do not have a common opinion on how to eat on the first day after poisoning and at the beginning of the second day: they agree:
- There is nothing extreme - pickles or marinades will lead to strong spasms.
- Under the ban, all dairy food - it will return diarrhea and nausea.
Gradually, with improved well-being, food should become more familiar. Usually, by the end of the week, eating after poisoning is no longer relevant.
► What you can eat after poisoning and what to drink:
- Tea without sugar.
- Groat and vegetable broths without oil and spices.
- Liquid vegetable puree and porridge.
- Broths of chamomile, wild rose or St. John's wort.
- Still mineral water.
- Crackers or biscuits without butter, sugar, additives - better homemade.
- Kissel made of blueberries or cherries, preferably savory.
- By the end of the third day boiled chicken and chicken broth.
► Cannot be in the first 3-4 days:
- Salted and marinated.
- Apples and other fruits.
Prevention of food poisoning and intestinal infections becomes relevant for any person who at least once survived the very unpleasant moments of food or drink poisoning.
The actions to be taken on a subconscious level and made a habit are simple:
- Wash hands - before eating and preparing it, while cooking, when changing food, after returning from the street or going to the toilet.
- In the hot season it is better to use disposable paper towels in the kitchen or to change woven daily.
- Carefully get acquainted with the shelf life and storage conditions of all purchased products, for example, many ketchup spoils without a refrigerator.
- Working well with meat, poultry, fish and eggs - steak with blood, of course, is beautiful, but it can be put in bed with a diagnosis, after which it is not at all a romantic pastime.
- Do not forget to change the washing sponges, not waiting for them to wear, and it is better to wash the dishes with brushes, which then rinse from food debris.
- Provide and take into the habit of hygiene and sanitation not only in the kitchen, but in general in everyday life and behavior.
- Do not eat in dubious places or on the go, with dirty hands.
- Do not drink juices, the packaging of which is swollen.
Food poisoning and its prevention today are a hot topic for doctors, teachers in schools, educators and nannies in kindergartens and simply in many families. However, it is important not only to know the preventive measures, but also to comply with them in order to avoid unpleasant consequences.
Video: food poisoning.
However, as well as poisoning, the symptoms of any of the following diseases may occur:
- Intestinal flu.
- Typhoid fever.
These diseases require hospitalization, but their first manifestations are disguised as simple poisoning with deteriorated products. You need to start worrying and calling doctors when:
- vomiting for more than three hours without any measures taken,
- diarrhea with blood
- diarrhea lasting over six hours
- raising the temperature to 38 and not falling below 37 during the day,
- not undergoing severe pain in the intestines,
- progressive weakness and fainting.
Also, doctors always immediately need to call to the kids up to five years, pregnant women and very old people.
Although food poisoning can be successfully treated at home, it is always better to hedge and avoid it, observing the simplest standards of sanitation, and taking the usual care.