Stomach diseases

The stomach is the engine of the body, from which the functions of all internal systems depend. Diseases of the stomach are provoked by an improper lifestyle, by external factors. Every fourth person by the age of 30 has in his history at least one disease that is interconnected with the digestive organ. Who is more prone to developing diseases? What is the reason for the development of pathologies and how to treat them?

Key diseases of the stomach

1. For chronic gastritis, pain in the stomach is characterized by low intensity. This fact, is able to attract the attention of the patient after a long time period from the onset of the disease. Close attention should be paid to the relationship of pain with receptions, the nature of food. Regular gastritis differs in early pains, almost instantly after the meal. This is especially confirmed after taking acidic foods, in addition, foods that have a rough consistency. There is another symptom that indicates an “early acquaintance” with regular gastritis.

- There is a feeling of heaviness, observed pressing force in the epigastric region during meals.

- The oral cavity systematically feels an unpleasant taste, belching, regurgitation, nausea are observed.

- Feeling of chest burning, in some cases of heartburn, talking about the evacuation problems of food from the stomach, diarrhea is possible.

2. Problems of the abdomen, pain in it, experienced with peptic ulcer can radically differ: from barely noticeable to seriously strong. Given this, the presence of ulcers on this symptom is difficult to judge.

Much more productive information can provide a link between abdominal pain and eating. The characteristic pain problems, with an ulcer, begin to feel not so fast as with gastritis, about an hour or so after the patient ate. Another “qualitative symptom” for peptic ulcer is seasonal changes in periods of exacerbation, which are more often observed in autumn, spring, and improvement. It is worth remembering about other possible manifestations of the disease.

- Belching with acidic contents, combined with systematically occurring heartburn.

- The appearance of vomiting, nauseous urges after eating, rapid weight loss.

Particular attention should be paid to acute, stabbing like a dagger, pain in the stomach, possibly talking about the appearance of a “hole” in the stomach wall through which food in the stomach penetrates the abdomen.

The frequency of occurrence of such pain is so far beyond all reasonable limits that the likelihood of pain shock in a patient is extremely high.

3. If the nature of the abdominal pain is aching, dull, this indicates the possible presence of polyps in the stomach.

Their manifestation is possible in the form of painful sensations with moderate pressure on the stomach.

Indirect signs indicating their presence may include bleeding, vomiting, and nausea.

4. Gastric pain, comparable with contractions, is most often observed with infectious lesions of the body (mainly of the viral plan, slightly less often than bacterial).

Diarrhea, vomiting - frequent guests in the body with such diseases.

5. A sharp stomach pain can provoke a chemical poisoning of the body (ingestion of alkalis, acids, heavy metals).

The symptomatology is similar to that observed in acute gastritis: a powerful pain syndrome, burning sensation, vomiting.

A severe form of poisoning can cause loss of consciousness, shock.

Now, I propose to dwell in more detail on some common gastric problems.

Reflux esophagitis

This inflammation of the esophagus is a widespread malaise.

Its occurrence is promoted by the systematic effect on the mucous membrane of gastric juice, bile, which penetrate due to problems with the performance of the sphincter, the muscle ring located between the stomach and esophagus.

Less clear explanations of why this ailment occurs are not yet available, but the following factors can provoke its appearance.

These include the key problems of the gastrointestinal tract: in addition to ulcers, gastritis, cholecystitis, duodenitis, and gallstone disease can supplement the list. There are more rare, but no less dangerous: the esophagus is small in length, a hiatal hernia.

The symptoms of reflux esophagitis, I think, are familiar to many firsthand: flaming, burning of the stomach area, as well as behind the sternum, belching sour, heartburn. You have good reason to suspect the appearance of esophagitis, if the listed symptoms show an increase, especially after eating, with the body tilted in different directions, at night. Pay close attention to the presence of a bloated stomach problem, nausea, vomiting. It happens that patients confuse this ailment with an attack of angina pectoris (which is described in more detail here), since the observed pain is characteristic of the left half of the chest, lower jaw, neck, and the area between the shoulder blades.

There are a number of secondary signs that indicate a possible danger of an approaching disease: a debilitating cough without obvious catarrhal manifestations, especially at night, shortness of breath that appears without the presence of heart disease, blood vessels, wheezing, profuse salivation.

For an accurate diagnosis of the problem, the doctor prescribes an x-ray of the esophagus, providing an opportunity to detect a hernia. However, the most complete, reliable picture is able to provide esophageal endoscopy, which allows you to determine in detail the existing level of severity of the disease.

Dyspepsia, “loves” to cause problems to the digestive system. With it, no changes in the shape of the stomach, mucous membrane are not detected, however, there are deviations in the performance of this organ. By eliminating the cause of the symptoms of dyspepsia, you will overcome this ailment. A number of simple recommendations will be given below.

1. Analyze whether the diet has cardinal deviations in the intake of certain foods. It will be highly advisable to start a food diary.

2. Loving sweet, flour products, cabbage, legumes, kvass can cause negative troubles fermentative dyspepsia, which is characterized by bloating (described in detail here), a kind of gurgle.

3. If your regular menu focuses on fatty, meat-hard meat varieties, in addition to this, the conditions and storage periods are not respected correctly, this means that all conditions are created for the development of putrefactive dyspepsia. Accompany her constant fatigue, poor appetite, diarrhea.

4. Finally, with the use of increased amounts of animal fats, the risk of developing fatty dyspepsia increases.

Normalization of regular nutrition will be sufficient to eliminate gastric indigestion.

5. It is recommended not to forget that this malaise can actively manifest itself in the problems of other organs that are most directly related to the digestive system. For example, pancreatic problems caused by pancreatitis, diabetes, after some time, disrupt the normal functioning of the stomach.

6. It is worth noting that indigestion is most often affected by insecure, dissatisfied with life, always complaining people. They are encouraged to try to learn to notice good moments in life.

Back ingestion, back into the esophagus, of the contents of the stomach causes heartburn. Eating away the mucous membrane of the esophagus, the gastric juice bears full responsibility for the appearance of an unpleasant burning sensation, so worrying us. The sensation of such a burning sensation may indicate existing problems with the health of the body:

- A hiatal hernia, which can be caused by chronic constipation, excessive physical exertion, a “powerful” cough, overeating, is often manifested by constant heartburn, which you can familiarize yourself with in more detail here.

- Difficulties in the passage of food through the esophagus, which leads to reflux esophagitis, are also considered a good reason to provoke heartburn. At the same time, the position of the body tilted forward, lying down is most dangerous.

- Finally, the leaders among stomach ailments - ulcers, gastritis, initially manifested, can express themselves by burning sensation.

For some, to get rid of heartburn, it is enough to make a small adjustment to their lifestyle.

1. Do not use “popular” medicines for a long time, especially without medical prescriptions.

2. Limit the intake of fatty, difficult to digest food, eat moderately.

3. Use alternative recipes, of course, after prior consultation with the doctor.

Homemade Heartburn Treatment

1. Connect boiled water, 100 ml in volume with one tsp. apple cider vinegar taken before meals.

2. Prepare the herbs St. John's wort, chamomile, plantain leaf (one teaspoon each). pour water (200 ml) provide the opportunity to infuse. Reception lead three times a day, before meals for half an hour.

3. Perhaps some mint infusion will help. Ten grams of mint to brew a glass of boiling water, drink instead of tea.

4. Having chewed several minutes of oat grain, barley, swallowing saliva released during this, you can cope with the trouble.

5. Some help vegetable oil, one tsp, with the appearance of burning.

6. Grind walnut grains, consume on dessert boxes. during the day.

On this, let me conclude this article, in which we tried to consider in detail the key stomach diseases, their main symptoms, causes. Taking care of the gastrointestinal tract, you will render an invaluable service to your stomach. Indeed, as the folk wisdom says, “Belly is life”!

Who is susceptible to disease?

The number of people suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract is increasing every day. The mechanism of the onset of the disease affects the percentage of the origin of pathologies in men and women. For example, an ulcer is more common in the male part of the population than in women, the age category is elderly. But duodenal ulcers are young. Emotionally unbalanced people smoking, eating irregularly are most at risk.

Causes of stomach pathologies

The reasons that provoke stomach diseases in humans are many. The main culprits:

  • food on the go
  • the use of low-quality foods,
  • binge eating,
  • improper temperature of food and drinks (hot or cold),
  • stressful situations
  • psychological excitement
  • psycho-injuries
  • diseases of the internal organs,
  • acute infectious processes
  • autoimmune processes
  • alcohol,
  • nicotine.
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Typical symptoms

Diseases of the stomach cause organ dysfunctions, provoking the following main symptoms:

  • Skin allergy.
  • Pale skin.
  • Plaque on the tongue. A plaque uncharacteristic for a healthy body on the tongue worsens the taste perception of food.
  • Pain. The center of its concentration is the epigastric region. The pain can be dull, aching, cramping, or sharp. The occurrence of pain is always interconnected with food intake.
  • Burping. The most common expression of gastric dysfunction. Belching exists pathological (lowering the tone of the sphincter) and functional (after eating). It has various flavors that characterize a specific ailment.
  • Heartburn. Burning sensation in the esophagus due to ingestion of gastric contents. Most often, heartburn is a sign of increased acidity, but there are cases of its manifestation with low and normal levels of acidity.
  • Nausea. The state of pressure under the pit of the stomach, which is accompanied by increased salivation, dizziness, lowering blood pressure, may appear as an independent phenomenon, and may be a harbinger of the vomiting phase.
  • Vomiting The involuntary release of internal contents through the esophagus accompanies various diseases of the stomach. When vomiting occurs, it is important to remember the time of its appearance, volume, color, smell, texture. Often, vomiting is associated with an exacerbation of the pain state and brings relief to the patient.
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List of various diseases of the stomach

The patient's description of the signs is not enough to make a diagnosis, the doctor may ask you to take the necessary analysis. It is important to know and distinguish common mucosal diseases by their symptoms. Among pathological conditions, disorders of motor and secretory function, erosive and ulcerative pathologies, specific inflammatory processes and the development of neoplasms are distinguished.

Stomach ulcer

The nature of the disease is due to the appearance of defects on the mucous membrane of the duodenum and stomach. This is facilitated by a decrease in the body's defenses. Sometimes the cause of peptic ulcer becomes ectopia of the pancreas. A characteristic difference between the disease - the stomach hurts at the same time, usually after eating. With a stomach ulcer, stomach pains that are not related to food often occur, the so-called "hungry pains". Timely diagnosis is important, since the danger of an ulcer consists in complications: wall defects cause outflow into the blood, edema near erosion narrows the organ exit, degeneration into a tumor, perforation, peritonitis. A lethal outcome from peritonitis occurs on day 3.

Inflammation of the membrane

Under the description of gastritis, all inflammations of the organ mucosa are combined. A chronic condition is the result of an acute course of the inflammatory process. During acute inflammation, the patient feels pain in the upper abdomen, nausea, dizziness. With prolonged gastritis, light, unobtrusive pains are felt. There is belching, heartburn, a feeling of heaviness in the stomach, a white coating on the tongue. 3% of all cases of diseases are due to an autoimmune complication - atrophic gastritis.

Stages of prolapse of the stomach

The proper placement of the stomach is disturbed due to a weakening of muscle tone. Pathology is congenital or acquired in nature. The cause of acquired gastroptosis may be uncontrolled weight loss or weight lifting. Acquired causes include childbirth in women. There are 3 stages of omission: initial, moderate and strong.

The omission negatively affects the digestive function, muscle contraction of the walls and the advancement of the food coma into the intestines. The valves between the stomach and esophagus, stomach and small intestine are disrupted. As a result, air enters through the sphincters, causing belching and penetration of bile, which can corrode the protective layer of the organ.

Malignant tumor

The most common form of cancer. The disease is divided into 3 oncological stages: early, detection of gastric disease, terminal. At an early stage, a manifestation of small signs uncharacteristic of cancer is observed: loss of appetite, depressed state, decreased working capacity. As a harbinger of the pre-tumor state, leukoplakia may appear. At a later date, indigestion appears and the stomach hurts.

Most often, the defeat captures the cardia, subcardia and the bottom of the stomach. A number of serious prerequisites led to combine the diagnosis of cancer of the cardia and subcardia into a separate group - cancer of the upper section.They are characterized by the course in a long "silent" period and the late identification of clinical signs. The condition is dangerous by rupture of the tumor, as a result - peritonitis. Therapy of the disease is carried out surgically, in the early stages of the operation it is possible to achieve a positive result.

Bulbit (a type of duodenitis)

Swelling of the duodenal bulb is called bulbitis. The bulb opens into the duct of the bile and pancreas, provides the introduction of the contents of the stomach. Therefore, inflammation of the bulb is often associated with gastritis. The following types of bulbit are distinguished:

  • erosive
  • catarrhal
  • superficial
  • sharp
  • chronic.

Stomach disease can occur with minimal symptoms (edema, accumulation of mucus, redness of the walls), and in a severe form (erosion, follicles, bleeding). Sometimes an ectopia of the pancreas in the ducts may be observed. It is not difficult to determine any type of bulbitis using instrumental studies in modern medicine.

Erosion of the stomach

Diagnosis by a gastroscope often in patients shows erosive lesions of the walls of the organ. Erosion does not affect the deeper layers of the walls, so when healing does not leave a scar. Erosion does not manifest itself, but in some cases, internal bleeding, swelling, belching and rare pain may appear. Studies show that most patients with erosion have an increased acidity. To prescribe the right treatment, it is important to determine the cause of the disease.

Stomach upset

Dysfunction, as a rule, is manifested by pain, bloating, heartburn, belching, and a feeling of heaviness. The causes of stomach disease are divided into functional disorders of the organ and organic. With organic disorders, it is easy enough to establish the cause of the disease of the stomach, and with a violation of the functions of the organ it is not always possible to do this. As a result of dysfunction, the movement of food and the formation of secretory fluid for digestion are disrupted.

Pneumatosis (airbrushing)

Pathology is characterized by a characteristic increased gas formation. Examination shows the presence of a gas bubble between the layers of the stomach and intestines. The resulting gas is the result of the vital activity of microorganisms that are in the abdominal cavity. On palpation, the doctor feels elastic formations, sometimes he can hear the sound of a bursting gas bubble. When conducting endoscopy, the presence of gas bubbles in the body cavity is confirmed. Sometimes a small amount of blood is noticeable in the vesicles.

Treatment of a sick stomach

Treatment of a patient with pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract and gastrointestinal tract is a difficult task. The doctor first examines the patient’s history, checks all laboratory tests and prescribes individual therapy. Due to the close relationship of diseases and diet, diet is the main condition for treatment. In addition, medications are prescribed.

Diet food

The goal of dietary nutrition is to help restore organ function. Food should not be plentiful. The number of meals should be increased to 5-6 times a day. The following permitted foods should be included in the diet:

  • vegetable or milk soups,
  • yesterday’s bread
  • lean meat or steamed fish
  • cereals
  • boiled vegetables
  • pasta,
  • tea, compote,
  • butter.

  • fatty broths
  • fresh baking
  • salted and smoked food,
  • carbonated drinks,
  • chocolate,
  • alcohol and nicotine.
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An integrated approach in the treatment of diseases involves the appointment of medications by a doctor:

  • antibiotics
  • antacids
  • alginates
  • antisecretory drugs
  • prokinetics
  • antispasmodics
  • enzyme preparations
  • probiotics
  • increased introduction of vitamins.
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Folk methods

Restore the health of the stomach will help the use of folk remedies:

  • potato and cabbage juice,
  • decoction of burdock root,
  • grassy collection of nettle, yarrow, senna, calendula and chamomile,
  • sea ​​buckthorn,
  • peppermint,
  • fennel leaves.
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Causes of gastrointestinal diseases

Diseases of the stomach and intestines can be detected at any age. There is some pattern in their development: for example, a stomach ulcer is more characteristic for men, gastritis and damage to the duodenum for women, functional disorders are more common in children.

Violation of the digestive tract leads to the cessation of the normal implementation of its functions:

  • motor-mechanical (chopping, transportation of food),
  • secretory (production of enzymes, digestion of food),
  • suction (assimilation of nutrients).

With prolonged exposure to pathogenic factors, deeper changes begin to form - inflammatory, destructive, and sometimes tumor. Experts call the two main causes of diseases of the stomach in humans - stress and unhealthy diet. The last reason includes a number of negative points:

  • abuse of crackers, chips, fast food,
  • overeating and malnutrition,
  • adherence to strict, fasting diets,
  • frequent consumption of fatty, fried, spicy foods,
  • irregularity of food, etc.

Also, causes of digestive diseases can be smoking, parasitic pathologies, diseases of the endocrine system, alcohol consumption. Not the last role is the contamination of the digestive tract with bacteria Helicobacter pylori.

Gastritis and duodenitis

Inflammation of the main organ of the gastrointestinal tract - the stomach, as well as the duodenum 12 occurs more often than other diseases within the competence of the gastroenterologist. If diagnosed, chronic gastritis will be detected in 50% of the population. Symptoms of a stomach disease are as follows:

  • epigastric pain after eating - immediately or after 10-30 minutes,
  • fasting
  • heartburn after a fatty meal, baking, coffee,

If an exacerbation of gastritis develops, all the symptoms are amplified. The pain can be cutting, severe, sometimes forcing a person to starve. After eating, vomiting appears. Often, body temperature rises (up to 37.5 degrees). Food intake can cause diarrhea. The acidity of the gastric juice increases greatly.

In some people, hyposecretory gastritis occurs, in which the acidity is reduced, while the risk of tumors and polyps is higher.

Duodenitis almost always accompanies gastritis and has the same symptoms, so a person is diagnosed with gastroduodenitis.

Often erosive forms of gastritis develop with small superficial hemorrhages on the mucosa. There is also a reflux form of the disease, in which the esophagus valve is weakened, and the contents of the stomach are thrown into the upper gastrointestinal tract.

Tumor pathologies of the stomach

Oncology of the stomach is quite common, mainly in people over 55 years old. Gastric cancer can be localized in any department, in 80% of people it gives metastases to the liver, pancreas, intestines.

Reasons may include:

  • immunodeficiencies
  • smoking,
  • work in hazardous production.

There are also precancerous diseases - ulcers, hyposecretory gastritis, in the presence of which it is necessary to regularly undergo examinations.

Benign gastrointestinal tumors - polyps - are also not always harmless, some of them are transformed into cancerous.

Cancer symptoms become noticeable only at the stage when the tumor is large. A person begins to lose weight, weakness, malaise, pallor, loss of appetite are observed.

Gustatory preferences change, the nature of pain also becomes different if it was present earlier. Heartburn and nausea are long, do not respond to drugs.

Sometimes adenocarcinoma of the stomach occurs. This type of tumor appears from the abundance of nitrates in the diet and damage to the digestive tract by harmful fumes, chemicals. Adenocarcinoma even at an early stage gives nausea, heaviness in the stomach, bursting after eating, vomiting. The treatment of cancerous tumors is operational; radiation and chemotherapy are also used.

Other diseases of the stomach

Among diseases of the stomach, a hernia of the esophageal opening of the diaphragm replenishes the list of diseases. It is detected mainly in 40-70 years old, more often in women. Up to half of the cases do not give symptoms, the rest are combined with gastritis, gastric ulcer, cholecystitis.

Hernia occurs due to weakening of the ligaments of the esophageal opening in the diaphragm. Risk factors are chronic constipation, hard work, repeated pregnancies, chronic lung diseases. Symptoms are similar to those of gastritis, reflux disease.

Diseases of the operated stomach are allocated in a separate group:

  1. Complications of the operation. This is a trauma to the nerve endings, a violation of the movement of food, bleeding, divergence of sutures.
  2. Relapse disease. Usually it is an ulcer or tumor.

Other pathologies of the stomach are less common. Here is a list of diseases diagnosed in patients.

Symptoms and signs

Symptoms for diseases of the stomach are diverse. Usually the pain is localized in the epigastric region. In the process of diagnosis, it is important to correctly determine the nature of the sensations. Sometimes the pain syndrome is weak, aching. In other cases, there are so strong sensations that it is almost impossible to cope with them.

Another sign is a feeling of discomfort or heaviness. It is associated with eating. A person may complain of discomfort at the very beginning of a meal or after. Sometimes a small amount of food was consumed, a feeling of fullness did not come, and the feeling of discomfort persists for a long time.

Dyspeptic disorders are also characteristic of gastric disease. These include:

  • burping
  • nausea or vomiting
  • violation of the stool.

The last sign is often expressed by constipation. With pathologies of the stomach, not only the process of digestion of food is disturbed, but also the emptying slows down.

Symptoms include:

  • bad taste in the mouth
  • lack of appetite.

But not all signs indicate the initial stage of development of the disease. For a long time, a person may not be bothered, and the signs of the disease will be blurry or hidden. Therefore, it is recommended to visit a doctor regularly.

Diseases of the operated stomach

This term refers to diseases that occur after surgery. This is a consequence of pathophysiological and pathomorphological changes occurring in the stomach and throughout the body.

According to statistics, 30% of operated patients have various pathological symptoms. According to ICD-10, the disease code is K91.1.

Sometimes symptoms appear after a few days. Such diseases of the stomach in most cases are associated with a violation of the technique of the operation. For example, with bad seams. Among the signs of such complications is the development of acute abdominal pain, the appearance of fever or intoxication. Postoperative bleeding is less common.

Chronic duodenitis

In this case, the pathological process affects the stomach and duodenum. More often, the disease develops in childhood due to the weakness of the hormonal apparatus or the incorrect position of the organ. But the risk of acquiring a chronic form persists in all people.

The primary form occurs with a regular violation of a healthy diet. Against the background of existing inflammatory processes, a secondary form is formed. An important role in this is played by duodenostasis. This is insufficient bowel mobility due to poor peristalsis or due to obstruction.

During periods of exacerbation, a constant pain in the stomach appears, which intensifies with starvation or a few hours after eating. A person from discomfort can wake up even at night. The disease is accompanied by a feeling of weakness, headaches, irritability, and a rapid heartbeat. The disease according to ICD-10 has a code of K29.8.

Benign tumors

This is a polymorphic group of formations that can affect any layer of the stomach. The main symptoms include: weakness, weight loss, digestive discomfort and loss of appetite. Anemia, depression and loss of interest in life can be added to this. The pains are pulling or aching in nature, occur more often immediately after eating.

Tumors differ in the degree of differentiation, origin. Among all cases, benign forms are found in 4% of cases. Most of these diseases are polyps.

Predisposing factors include:

  • chronic gastritis,
  • infection with a microorganism, which leads to increased release of hydrochloric acid,
  • genetic predisposition
  • bad habits,
  • decreased immunity.

The biggest danger of benign tumors is degeneration into cancer or perforation of the tumor. The latter is characterized by the appearance of an opening in the wall of the stomach and the development of peritonitis. Sometimes there is stenosis, bleeding.

This is a malignant tumor originating from the epithelium of the mucous membrane. It occurs in any part of the stomach and spreads to other organs.

The disease has high mortality rates. It is more often found in men. Metastases appear in 80-90% of patients.

Stomach cancer has several features:

  • it is growing fast
  • sprouts through healthy tissues, destroying them,
  • emits poisons that poison the entire body.

Among the causes of the disease are poisoning with chemicals, exposure to an ionizing study, nicotine, immunodeficiency states. There are also some precancerous diseases, for example, erosion, ulcers, polyps and GERD. Malignant neoplasm of the stomach according to ICD 10 has the code C16.

Patients complain of prolonged heartburn and nausea, progressive weight loss with normal nutrition, general weakness, and a feeling of dissatisfaction after eating.

Ulcerative pathology

This is a recurring disease, the main feature of which is the destruction of those parts of the mucosa that come into contact with active gastric juice. There are different forms of ulcers that occur when exposed to various negative factors. These include symptomatic and gastroduodenal erosion.

In Western Europe, Japan, 2-3% of the adult population suffers from this disease. More often men are ill. Urban residents are more susceptible to disease progression than rural people.

An acute ulcer appears when the pathological process spreads deeper into the mucous membrane. The formations themselves are more often single, have a rounded shape. In appearance, the edges of the ulcer may not differ from the surrounding tissues.

Acute gastritis

This is the first inflammatory process that has affected the mucous membrane. Manifested by belching, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, severe pain. This disease is the most common form of the disease in gastroenterology. According to statistics, every second person has gastritis.

In the acute form, in the process of gastroscopy, thickenings, plethora and swelling of the mucosa are detected. Small-cell superficial hemorrhages are sometimes found. With numerous erosions, we are talking about acute erosive gastritis.

With the fibrous form, necrotic changes in the mucosa are noted. Depending on the degree of damage and depth, superficial and deep gastritis are divided. The first manifestations are usually detected 6-12 hours after exposure to the etiological factor. ICD Code 10 - K 29.1

What is good to know about the stomach

The stomach is anatomically an intermediate organ in the digestive process, as it lies between the esophagus and intestines (duodenum). Conventionally, the body is divided into parts:

  • on the border with the esophagus (above) the area of ​​the cardia and the bottom,
  • in the middle of the body
  • below an antrum and a pyloric department with a sphincter.

Each department performs its functions.In medicine, division is important for determining the localization of pathological changes, developing optimal operational tactics. From the inside, the surface of the organ is lined with a mucous membrane. It consists of a single layer of epithelial cells.

This causes significant sensitivity to any negative influences and difficulties in trying to restore the gastric mucosa. The structure has holes. Here the cells produce gastric juice containing hydrochloric acid, pepsin.

The muscular part of the wall consists of three layers. Fibers carry out contractions in the transverse, longitudinal and oblique directions. Thanks to this, the food, after it enters the stomach, mixes well, is crushed to particles of 2 mm in diameter, and sufficient contact with the liquid part of the active substances is ensured.

A significant number of nerve endings are located in all layers. They are represented by branches of the parasympathetic system (sympathetic nodes of the spinal cord and the vagus nerve).

Thanks to such connections, immediately after food enters the mouth, a signal is sent to the production of digestive enzymes, muscles work in concert, pushing the food lump to the pyloric part. Sensitive painful endings in the mucous membrane are absent, therefore the sampling of the material for biopsy with fibrogastroscopy is a completely painless process.

Hydrochloric acid is necessary to ensure the functions of the stomach. The norm is measured in units of acidity (from 1.5 to 2 pH). It is made by parietal cells. The level fluctuates during the day. The reaction approaches neutral at the border with the duodenum. It is diluted with the use of a large volume of liquid. Its role in the disinfection of food and the protection of the mucosa from bacteria is important.

Glandular cells produce the digestive enzyme pepsin and hormonal informants (gastrin, serotonin, somatostatin). They provide regulation of the digestive process not only in the stomach. The signal stimulates the secretion of the pancreas.

Chronic gastritis

The disease, as in the acute form, is characterized by inflammation of the mucosa. In the chronic form, the disease is recurring in nature. Because of this, mucosal degeneration appears, structures are pathologically changed, atrophy of cellular elements occurs. The glands located in the submucosa cease to function and are replaced by another tissue.

Chronic gastritis can be of several types:

  • Type A is the primary autoimmune form affecting the bottom of the stomach.
  • Type B is a form of bacterial origin.
  • Type C - reflux gastritis.

The chronic form has a code according to SKB-10 K29.3 - K29.5

Gastric hypersecretion

Secretory function is impaired by abnormal activation of certain cells. This leads to an increase in the production of hydrochloric acid or the entire gastric juice. Pathology occurs due to a violation of regulatory mechanisms.

The process is associated with functional or organic lesions of the stomach. Sometimes hypersecretion occurs against a background of functional disorders, gastritis, or organic lesions of the stomach. A significant increase in secretion occurs with acute expansion of the organ, as well as under the influence of its cooling.

Hypersecretion leads to a sharp depletion of the gastric glands. Digestion of protein foods is impaired. Hypersecretion has three forms:

  • Gastrosurea. Functional disorder due to a violation of the mechanisms of higher nervous regulation.
  • Paroxysmal. This is a periodically arising form that occurs reflexively. It is detected more often in patients with peptic ulcer and some other central nervous system lesions.
  • Alimentary. The amount of gastric juice increases regardless of the type of stimulus. Such symptoms can occur in individuals with a weakened cerebral cortex.


For the disease, the omission of the stomach is characteristic. This is accompanied by its hypotension and lengthening. Such a problem can be congenital or acquired. In the early stages of the disease, no manifestations usually occur. In the later stages, pain occurs after eating, during exercise or during running.

Gastroptosis is often accompanied by prolapse of other organs. The disease is rare, more common in young women. A high degree of morbidity in this group is associated with dieting, childbirth, and excessive thinness. In men, gastroptosis is associated with an improper load distribution.

This is a pathological condition in which cysts form in the thickness of the organ wall. Their contents are air or gas. As the disease progresses, it can pass into the lymph nodes and peritoneum.


It begins with a history and examination of the stomach. The latter is carried out in good light. The entire abdominal wall is examined. This allows you to detect an increase in part of the abdomen.

Instrumental methods include:

  1. Gastroscopy. An endoscope is inserted through the mouth. Thanks to a special optical device, the doctor examines the gastric mucosa in real time. It is possible to identify the smallest changes.
  2. Fluoroscopy. It is carried out using radiological equipment. The procedure lasts about 40 minutes. The specialist evaluates the condition of the mucosa, the shape of the stomach, its location and the features of motor functions.
  3. CT scan. It is used more often for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. The doctor sees a section of the walls, so he can evaluate their thickness, volume, and the nature of the tumor.
  4. Ultrasound During the procedure, the shape, location and structure of the stomach are determined.

Additionally, laboratory methods are prescribed to evaluate the properties of gastric juice.

Stomach Disease Treatment

Surgical treatment is used only in extreme cases. More often appointed:

The menu does not include products that mechanically irritate the mucous membrane. It can be turnip, beans, peas.

Do not abuse bread from coarse flour, sinewy meat, skin of poultry or fish. Fruits and berries with a rough peel are also contraindicated.

Positive effect on the work of the stomach:

  • soups
  • porridge
  • milk products,
  • boiled lean meat and fish,
  • eggs
  • yesterday’s bread,
  • weak tea
  • honey.

For patients, a diet No. 1 or 16 is prescribed. They are energetically complete, but with a significant limitation of chemical and mechanical irritants of the mucosa.

Depending on the cause of the disease, the following are prescribed:

  1. Antacids. They neutralize the acid of the gastric juice.
  2. Alginates. Restores neutral acidity.
  3. Antisecretory drugs. Reduce the production of hydrochloric acid.
  4. H2 blockers. Reduce the flow of hydrochloric acid into the lumen of the stomach.
  5. Proton pump inhibitors. Inhibit the secretion of hydrochloric acid.
  6. Prokinetics. Stimulate gastrointestinal motility.

Aloe has a powerful anti-inflammatory effect. Its juice reduces pain, has an antimicrobial effect, inhibits the inflammation process, nourishes epithelial cells. The presence of vitamins and various nutrients in the composition allows you to stimulate the immune system.

When treating the stomach, chamomile, calendula and some other types of herbs are used. All of them have antispasmodic effects.


Avoiding the occurrence of stomach diseases is easy. This requires a balanced diet. It is recommended to streamline the diet, eat in small portions, avoid eating dry food, do not eat hot or cold food.

Give up bad habits. Smoking, for example, causes toxins to damage not only the stomach, but also dystrophic changes in the liver and pancreas. Bad habits include frequent drinking of alcohol, spicy or very hot food.

It is necessary to take medicines with caution. They can cause bleeding, inflammation, stone formation, and colitis. Do not forget that many diseases of the stomach are associated with the psycho-emotional sphere. Therefore, avoid stress, prolonged stress.

The video talks about diseases of the gastrointestinal tract:

Symptoms of a stomach ailment

Various signs indicate the presence of pathology in the stomach. Some of them may not cause great inconvenience to a person, and may not force him to consult a doctor.

The following symptoms of stomach ailment exist:

  • Taste changes or perversions. The patient feels an unpleasant aftertaste in his mouth, when examining the oral cavity in this case, there is a plaque in the tongue, a white-gray tint that appeared due to swelling, clouding and exfoliation of the epithelium.
  • Changes in appetite, characterized either by its complete disappearance, or vice versa, by strengthening. Sometimes it decreases slightly, or even perverts - in the latter case, the patient is disgusted with any food, for example, fish or meat.
  • Increased thirst is not a very common symptom of a stomach disease, but, nevertheless, it accompanies the phenomenon of hypersecretion, or the secretion of gastric juice in too large quantities, which is not considered normal.
  • Belching with different smells - putrid, rancid or bitter. Distinguish between empty, that is, belching with air, which signals increased gas formation, fermentation or stagnation processes, and belching with food.
  • heartburn - a burning sensation or heat in the stomach, indicates a violation in acid metabolism,
  • nausea - before or after a meal,
  • vomiting - on an empty stomach, immediately after eating, or after a few hours,
  • pain - periodic or persistent, on an empty stomach, or after eating.

Some of these symptoms of a person’s stomach disease do not always indicate gastritis or an ulcer. For example, vomiting in women is not always a sign of gastric damage, it acts as a support for pregnancy and toxicosis. Also, it is observed with poisoning or severe stress.

The list of diseases of the stomach and their exact symptoms are information perfectly mastered by a qualified gastroenterologist.

Causes of stomach pathology

According to medical statistics, the number of patients visiting hospitals complaining of gastrointestinal diseases is growing every day. Gastric ailments affect people of all ages, ranging from school-age children to retirees. The risk group includes those who ignore the principles of proper nutrition, get nervous a lot, exhaust themselves with diets, smoke.

It is important to understand that any disease of the stomach, even at the initial stage, entails a deterioration in the performance and functions of the body, such as the absorbing (absorption of nutrients from food), mechanical and motor (directly digesting, grinding food lumps) and secretory (secretion) .

Diseases affecting the stomach adversely affect the entire body

The factors provoking the occurrence of gastric pathologies, mass. Among them, there are several main reasons that become responsible for diseases of the digestive tract.

Table 1. Why do stomach diseases occur?

Wrong food chooses stomach problems at any age

Signs of unhealthy stomach

Despite the fact that gastric diseases can significantly differ from each other, their symptoms are differentiated, that is, indicating several diseases at the same time. However, there is a persistent list of symptoms, the combination of which should immediately contact a therapist to get a referral for diagnosis. If a person senses and notices two or more of the symptoms listed below, you should not hesitate to examine:

  1. Constant feeling of thirst.
  2. A sharp decrease in body weight.
  3. Regular pain in the abdomen, in any projection.
  4. Fatigue, sweetness, inability to perform previously feasible work and activity.
  5. Disorders of appetite (in any direction - both absence and causeless increase).
  6. Gastrointestinal dysfunctions of any nature (diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, heartburn, flatulence, belching, bad breath).

Gastrointestinal dysfunction is one of the symptoms of stomach problems.

List of stomach diseases

Gastric diseases are a real scourge of modern society, they are detected in people of all ages. There are some patterns established by doctors. So, in children and adolescents, gastritis and functional disorders are more often detected, in women - gastroptosis, in men - ulcerative lesions. Consider these ailments in more detail, focusing on their symptoms.

Gastritis is perhaps the most common disease on the planet, with every second person encountering various forms of it. Doctors say that if every person is diagnosed, it turns out that at least 65% of the population suffers from a chronic form of gastritis. It is not surprising, because unhealthy nutrition leads to this ailment (very young patients who prefer vegetables, soups and cereals chips, chocolate and fast food) also cure gastritis, acute infectious diseases, taking antibiotics or other drugs, poisoning, alcohol abuse and smoking.

Localization of various forms of gastritis

The acute form of gastritis (inflammation of the gastric mucosa) usually begins unexpectedly. The attack occurs shortly after the body collides with an irritant: bacteria (the main danger is Helicobacter pylori), toxins, toxic substances, poor-quality food and the like. Among the symptoms of acute gastritis can be identified:

  1. Nausea, vomiting is possible.
  2. Soreness in the abdomen, may be shingles.
  3. Diarrhea.
  4. Weakness, dizziness, cold sweat.
  5. A feeling of heaviness in the center of the abdomen.
  6. Grayish-white "overlaid" tongue.
  7. Pallor of mucous membranes and skin.

The acute form is treated successfully if a person immediately receives an alarm from his body, goes to a medical institution, where, under the supervision of a gastroenterologist, he undergoes an examination and carefully performs all the appointments.

If an attack of gastritis is ignored, and the factors leading to irritation of the mucous organ are not excluded, the likelihood that the disease will turn into a chronic form tends to one hundred percent. Chronic gastritis slowly but constantly negatively affects the mucous membrane of the organ, destroying it. The main symptoms of gastritis, which proceeds chronically, look like this:

  1. Bad breath.
  2. Flatulence, regular sensation of air in the stomach.
  3. Violations of the stool, alternating constipation and diarrhea.
  4. Permanent heartburn, belching.

With any form of gastritis, the gastric mucosa suffers

Chronic gastritis, in turn, is divided into ailments with reduced (more common) and increased acidity. Consider the symptoms of each form in a table.

Table 1. Gastritis with different acidity: signs

What digestive diseases are included in the list of diseases of the stomach?

A separate classification of diseases of the stomach does not exist. Statisticians and clinicians follow each of their instructions. We give a list of stomach diseases that are most common among children and adults. We offer to consider:

  • gastritis - inflammation of the mucosa of various etiologies,
  • peptic ulcer
  • neoplasms
  • impaired motor function,
  • prolapse of the stomach
  • gastroesophageal reflux disease,
  • polyposis.

A rare pathology includes the following types of disorders of functions and diseases of the stomach:

  • achilia of the stomach - complete suppression of gastric secretion,
  • pylorospasm - reduction of the pyloric zone, more often observed in infants,
  • pneumatosis - increased gas formation in the stomach with a feeling of pressure and constant belching,
  • Menetrie disease - characterized by mucosal hyperplasia with the formation of cysts and adenomas,
  • Mallory-Weiss syndrome - mucosal tears pass from the esophagus to the cardiac section of the stomach.

Treatment of the stomach for each disease requires a separate approach. In addition, it is worth considering that when a patient complains that “his stomach is not working,” meaning diarrhea and constipation, he is right, because stomach diseases are not limited to damage to one organ, but are the initial link in gastroenteritis, gastroduodenitis, bulbitis - bowel diseases affect the work of the gallbladder and pancreas. To restore the stomach, you have to treat the entire digestive tract.

Watch the video: Irritable Bowel Syndrome. IBS. Nucleus Health (April 2020).