The intestinal microflora consists of more than 500 species of various bacteria that are involved in the digestion and assimilation of food that the blood carries throughout the body.
The optimal ratio of these bacteria ensures the normal functioning of the intestine and the regulation of metabolism: proteins, fats, cholesterol, nucleic acids. Useful microorganisms also take an active part in the synthesis of vitamins and the removal of toxins from the body.
If microflora fails, then this immediately affects the state of the whole organism: immunity decreases, skin rashes appear, sleep and appetite worsen.
Causes and symptoms of dysbiosis
Causes of intestinal microflora disorder:
- disturbed diet
- eating junk food
- after prolonged use of antibiotics,
- chronic diseases
- frequent colds.
Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in adults:
- chronic diarrhea and constipation,
- bloating and flatulence,
- bad breath
- colic and cramping
- skin rash
- weakness and drowsiness,
- stratification and fragility of nails,
- dull hair
- memory impairment
These phenomena deprive a person of a full life.
What are the stages of the disease
There are such stages of the disease:
- 1 degree. At this stage, it will be easy to cure dysbiosis, since the balance of microflora is slightly disturbed. If treatment is not started immediately, the number of harmful microorganisms will increase, while the number of beneficial ones will decrease. The first degree is insidious in that there are no obvious symptoms in a person.
- 2 degree. An imbalance of microflora can cause inflammatory processes in the intestines and stomach. This can result in diarrhea and abdominal pain. With these symptoms, you must immediately sound the alarm.
- 3 degree. The inflammatory process begins to upset the intestinal wall, which exacerbates chronic digestive upset. This stage of the disease requires serious treatment not only with a proper diet, but also with medicines.
- 4 degree. The reproduction of pathogenic bacteria is so great at this stage that it causes regular loose stools, abdominal pain, bloating, weakness and a decrease in vitality. This advanced form of bowel disorder must be urgently treated before irreversible processes occur.
Dysbacteriosis after antibiotics has a fungal form. Candida yeast begins to multiply uncontrollably after prolonged use of antibacterial drugs.
The fungus causes heartburn, pain and loose stools. In some cases, the temperature may even rise. Therefore, immediately after a course of antibiotics, the doctor should prescribe therapy to restore the intestinal flora.
Pseudomonas dysbiosis causes E. coli, which appears and multiplies in people who have had dysentery, enterocolitis, or salmonella. Sometimes the appearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be caused by severe food poisoning.
In the absence of appropriate treatment, local ulcers appear in the intestine, which, growing, can cause death.
Methods of treatment and drugs
Before starting treatment, it is necessary to find out the causes of the disorder of the intestines. For this, the doctor usually gives a direction for the analysis of feces.
How to treat intestinal dysbiosis:
- adjust the microflora of the small and large intestines, removing foreign microorganisms,
- restore motility and intestinal motility,
- boost the immune system.
They treat dysbiosis with drugs, folk methods, as well as a special diet.
Drugs for dysbiosis:
- probiotics - living microorganisms,
- prebiotics - promote the growth of beneficial bacteria,
- synbiotics - artificial analogues of the two previous groups.
Fungal dysbiosis is treated with nystatin tablets.
To improve the microflora of the large intestine, tablets are prescribed for dysbiosis, which contain live bifidobacteria and lactobacilli:
Bifidumbacterin is in the form of capsules, tablets and powder. Therefore, this drug can be given even to infants, diluting the powder in breast milk.
The dosage of all drugs depends on the age of the patient and the degree of dysbiosis.
Intestinal dysbiosis in children
While the baby lives in the womb, its intestines are sterile, without bacteria. At the time of birth, the baby receives many bacteria. The intestinal microflora is replenished during the birth and with the first application to the mother's breast.
Colostrum, which is secreted by a nursing mother for the first 2-3 days, is a valuable source of all trace elements, vitamins, and also beneficial intestinal bacteria. It is during this period that the baby receives a powerful dose of microorganisms that strengthen the immune system and protect it from diseases.
The first 3-7 days, intestinal microflora are actively formed. Therefore, if the child does not eat breast milk during the first days of life, he may develop dysbiosis. Refusal of breastfeeding and the transition to artificial nutrition is the primary cause of dysbiosis in newborns.
Causes of intestinal dysbiosis in children
Other causes of intestinal breakdown in babies:
- taking antibiotics and other drugs by mom during lactation,
- congenital gastrointestinal pathology,
- taking serious medications in the first days of life,
- intestinal immaturity in premature babies,
- early feeding
- unsanitary conditions of detention of the child,
- childbirth injuries
- mother’s breast diseases,
- staph infection in the hospital.
Symptoms and degrees of the disease
The main sign of dysbiosis in a child is a violation of the structure of feces. The consistency, smell and color of the bowel movements can determine the degree of the disease.
Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in infants:
- frequent chair
- skin and nails become rough,
- temperature rise,
- anxiety and sleep disturbance,
- bleeding gums.
- 1 degree - compensated. At this stage, there is a decrease in appetite, poor weight gain and light (almost white) feces. Such symptoms indicate an early introduction of complementary foods or poor-quality infant formula. The general condition of the child is satisfactory, you should only review the daily diet.
- 2 degree - subcompensated. At this stage, abundant gas production, colic and stool disorders in the form of diarrhea or constipation are characteristic. The color of feces is greenish with undigested food and a putrid odor. This is a sign of the presence of harmful microorganisms in the intestines: staphylococci, fungi.
- 3 degree - decompensated. The baby has a regular indigestion. Fecal feces - green with the smell of a rotten egg. The child is often sick and may show signs of rickets. This comes from a decrease in immunity and poor absorption of vitamins. The kid is not gaining weight well, he has no appetite. Against this background, anemia can develop.
- Grade 4 is characteristic of older children. In this case, pathogens become the cause of dysbiosis: salmonella, E. coli, dysentery carrier. These bacteria multiply very quickly, affecting the remaining internal organs. Due to intoxication of the body, weakness, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, vitamin deficiency, anemia, decreased appetite and all vitality appear. The child requires urgent hospitalization.
Any manifestation of these symptoms should be a signal to parents - urgently seek medical help. The sooner you start treatment, the faster and easier it is to establish intestinal microflora.
Analysis for dysbiosis in the baby
The easiest way to diagnose the condition of the intestinal flora is to take an analysis of feces for dysbiosis. It should be taken before starting medication and a month after taking probiotics.
How to take feces for dysbiosis? The baby collects stool in a special flask on the eve of a trip to the laboratory.
- Bacteriological research. This diagnosis allows you to identify up to 25 types of bacteria. This analysis helps establish the ratio of pathogenic and beneficial bacteria.
- Sowing feces for dysbiosis. This analysis allows you to establish the degree of reproduction of pathogenic bacteria in the intestine, as well as the sensitivity of microflora to antibiotics.
- Coprogram. This study determines the presence of an inflammatory process in the intestine.
- Excretory test. This method allows for several hours to identify the composition of the bacteria that inhabit the intestines.
Analysis of feces can not always show the whole "picture", since the microflora of the intestines of each child is individual. Therefore, in some cases, the doctor may prescribe additional tests of urine and blood.
Treatment and drugs for babies
When confirming the diagnosis, doctors prescribe a long-term treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in children.
The treatment algorithms are as follows:
- Destruction of pathogenic bacteria by taking drugs - bacteriophages. These drugs are not terrible for beneficial microflora. If a large number of pathogenic bacteria is detected in the intestine, antibiotics are prescribed: Macropen, Diflucan.
- The withdrawal of accumulated toxins from the body. This is facilitated by sorbents that absorb all the toxins and successfully remove them from the body along with feces. One of the most effective drugs of this class is Enterosgel.
- "Settlement" in the intestines of beneficial microorganisms. For this, probiotics containing lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are prescribed.
Probiotics - drugs for the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in infants:
Probiotics are also found in these foods:
One of the main groups of drugs for dysbiosis is prebiotics. These are substances that “push” the body to produce beneficial bacteria on their own.
Prebiotics for dysbiosis:
- Lactose or milk sugar. This substance is found in breast milk and actively promotes the formation and growth of beneficial bacteria.
- Fructosaccharides. These elements are found in fruits and vegetables.
- Lactulose It can be "extracted" in ordinary milk.
- Insulin. It promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria and regulates blood sugar. Insulin is produced by the organisms themselves. In order for insulin to enter the blood in sufficient quantities, it is necessary to consume more plant foods.
- Cellulose. Dietary fiber provides a breeding ground for bacteria.
The main source of cellulose is vegetables and all plant foods. Cellulose is also found in such cereals:
Along with the intake of healthy foods, one should not forget about vitamins. They increase the body's resistance against various infections.
Prevention of intestinal dysbiosis
Basic nutrition rules:
- products should not contain dyes, flavor enhancers and chemical additives,
- exclude fatty meats, coffee, alcohol, ice cream, sweets,
- increase the content of dairy products, fruits and vegetables.
Diet for intestinal dysbiosis:
- For infants, the best diet is mother's milk, which he should receive at least the first year of his life. It contains the whole complex of beneficial bacteria that protect the intestinal microflora.
- Eat fermented milk mixtures, kefir, yoghurts that contain live bacteria.
- After 2 years, the baby should receive fiber and dietary fiber. These substances are found in cereals, vegetable dishes, steamed or baked. Also, a rosehip drink is a great way to improve bowel function.
- Abundant drinking regimen.
- Vegetable soups, boiled meat, cereals. If there is an allergy in the crumbs, it is better to cook the porridge in water.
A nursing mother should carefully monitor her diet. It is strictly forbidden to use:
- spicy and too fatty dishes
- limit the use of confectionery products that can cause intestinal fermentation,
- citrus fruits and red berries.
The diet of a nursing mother must necessarily include:
- milk products,
- hard cheeses,
- tea, juice, dried fruit compote,
- boiled meat.
Choose lean meats: chicken, veal, rabbit.
If the diet does not help, and the child has prolonged diarrhea, the problem must be solved medically.
If the liquid stool is dark, then it is necessary to increase the use of dairy products, as well as fruit drinks and jelly. Yellow excrement suggests that you should eat more meat, eggs and cottage cheese.
Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis with folk remedies
In the early stages, the disease can be treated with herbs. This method is the safest. But, starting to treat the child with herbal infusions, it will be necessary to make sure that the baby is not allergic to the biologically active components of the herbs.
A universal natural antiseptic is a pharmacy chamomile. From a warm broth, the baby makes enemas. You can add a little kefir to the composition. Severe diarrhea is treated with a decoction of oak bark.
After a year, children can add essential oils of tea tree, olive, peach, sesame, fennel to the composition of enemas.
In order to prevent dysbiosis in the baby, the mother should, first of all, take care of her health even before the birth. To do this, she needs to eat right, treat her teeth on time and lead a proper lifestyle.
What is dysbiosis?
Dysbacteriosis is a pathogenic change in the number of beneficial bacteria in the intestine. The danger of the disease is that it provokes the risk of secondary immunodeficiency. About 400 species of beneficial microorganisms live in the human intestines, which prevent the growth of harmful microbes and normalize acid metabolism. With an increase in the population of pathogenic bacteria, the protective function of microflora decreases, and during the life of microbes in the intestine gas formation increases and excessive rotting begins.
The problem of intestinal dysbiosis
The function of beneficial bacteria is to isolate enzymes that have bactericidal and antiseptic properties. They contribute to the digestion of food and the absorption of beneficial components. The optimal combination of bacteria regulates metabolic processes and creates adverse conditions for the accumulation and development of fungi and candida. With impaired functionality of beneficial bacteria, weakening of the immune system and the protective properties of the body occurs. Against the background of an imbalance of microflora, pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys develop.
Symptoms of dysbiosis in adults
An imbalance of microflora has specific symptoms, which are characterized by pain in the navel and inflammation of the lymph nodes. Otherwise, intestinal dysbiosis in adults has the same symptoms as intoxication or indigestion:
- discomfort in the intestines,
- chronic stool disorder,
- unreasonable weight loss,
- nausea, belching and heartburn,
- taste of bitterness in the mouth
- bad breath
- rumbling and boiling in the intestines,
- itching in the rectum.
Symptoms may occur in the complex or individually. The symptom complex of dysbiosis includes:
- loss of appetite,
- tendency to infectious diseases and inflammatory processes.
Headache - a symptom of intestinal dysbiosis
Symptoms of microflora imbalance can occur constantly or after taking certain foods. The clinical picture may include various symptoms due to the multiplication of a certain type of pathogenic bacteria. With dysbiosis, a change in the composition of feces is observed due to the weakening of obligate bacteria.
For the normal growth and propagation of obligate flora, dietary fiber and pectin are required, which are found in vegetables, fruits, cereals and algae, as well as amino acids - arginine, glutamine, which are rich in, in particular, soy milk. They help to fill the deficit of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli dairy products enriched with them - kefir, cottage cheese, yogurt.
The so-called substances that come with food are not digested in the intestines, but serve as a breeding ground for the obligate flora. These include inulin, lactulose, galactose, fructose isomers, other oligosaccharides. They are found in large enough quantities in dairy products and cereals - in particular, wheat and corn, onions and garlic, chicory. In the pharmacy you can buy Duphalac (a drug of lactulose) or dietary supplements containing oligosaccharides of natural or artificial origin: (normase, lactusan, prebio).
These are preparations containing live cultures of bacteria.
- Monocomponent: the composition includes one of the representatives of obligate or concomitant microflora (bifidumbacterin, lactobacterin, colibacterin). The duration of treatment is from 4 to 6 weeks.
- Multicomponent (symbiotics): they contain several representatives of obligate and associated flora (bificol, bifiform, linex) - the duration of the treatment is about 2 weeks
- Antagonists: bacteria that are not related to the obligate flora, but are able to suppress the growth of opportunistic pathogens (enterol, bactisubtil, bactisporin) - the duration of treatment with such drugs is usually 5, maximum 7 days.
- Combined: in addition to obligate or concomitant flora, they contain substances with an immunomodulatory effect (acipol, bifilis) - 10-14 days.
- Synbiotics: a combination of obligate flora and a prebiotic (bifido-tank, laminolact, maltodophilus) - at least 3 weeks.
Probiotics are not able to colonize the intestines - this is not part of their task. They compete with the optional flora, thereby suppressing its growth, and restore lost balance.
But this is not enough for severe dysbiosis, when the number of obligate microflora is reduced. In this case, antimicrobials come to the rescue.
These drugs are practically not absorbed in the intestine, inhibit the reproduction of pathogenic flora, almost without affecting the main one.
- Intetrix is a drug consisting of three quinolone derivatives. It is prescribed in a course of 3-5 days, 2 capsules 3-4 times, it is recommended to drink plenty of water.
- Nifuroxazide (enterofuril, ercefuril) - a drug from the group of nitrofurans, adults are usually prescribed 200 mg. 4 times a day for a week.
They are prescribed only with the established form of dysbiosis and strictly taking into account the sensitivity spectrum of the microorganism.
- Staphylococcal - macrolides (clarithromycin, oleandomycin), semisynthetic penicillins (oxacillin, amoxicillin), and lincomycin.
- Proteus and altered forms of Escherichia coli - nitrofurans described in the group of intestinal antiseptics are most effective; sulfa drugs (sulgin, phthalazole) and nalidixic acid derivatives (nevigramone) can be prescribed.
- Enterococci - semisynthetic penicillins (apicillin), macrolides (erythromycin), chloramphenicol.
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa - aminoglycosides (gentamicin, kanamycin), carbenicillin, polymyxin.
- Candidamycin - amphotericin B, lamisil, diflucan.
These are viruses that infect a specific type of bacteria. They can be combined with antibiotic therapy or used as an alternative treatment. Bacteriophages are taken orally or as enemas.
Currently produced: staphylococcal, proteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, coliprotein bacteriophages.
Since obligate flora synthesizes water-soluble vitamins and is involved in the absorption of vitamins A, E, D, dysbacterioses inevitably lead to hypovitaminosis. For its treatment, multivitamin preparations are prescribed (decamevit, multitabs and others).
Immunomodulators and biostimulants
Since local immunity is always impaired with dysbiosis, these drugs can both reduce the number of colds and speed up the process of restoring microbial balance.
Herbal preparations are used - tincture of Echinacea, Eleutherococcus, Schisandra, propolis extract.
- With diarrhea - sorbents and astringents, antispasmodics and antidiarrheal drugs.
- For constipation - osmotic laxatives (forlax), xylitol and sorbitol, liquid paraffin, vegetable laxatives, lactulose, antispasmodics (no-shpa or duspatalin) for spastic constipation, choleretic drugs.
- In case of allergic reactions - antihistamines (zyrtec, clarithin).
- With neurasthenic conditions - sedatives (persen, valerian).
Recent medical debate about whether to treat dysbacteriosis has ended decisively: “Treat!” Modern drugs can bring the microbial balance back to normal quickly and efficiently. A reasonable approach to the use of antibiotics and a rational diet can be a good prevention of such conditions.
Antibiotic drugs for dysbiosis
Antibiotic drugs against dysbiosis and other intestinal infections disrupt the ecological balance of intestinal microflora. Thus, the treatment of dysbiosis with antibiotic drugs aggravates dysbiotic changes in the body, and natural protective resources are suppressed. Moreover, dysbiosis can not only become a trigger for the development of functional disorders in the form of dyspepsia, but also contribute to the development of purulent-inflammatory diseases of various localization, malignant neoplasms, and allergic reactions.
Products (nutrition) for dysbiosis
The diagnosis, the appointment of a diet for dysbiosis, drug treatment is carried out by the attending physician. Treatment of dysbacteriosis should be comprehensive: you attach microphytotherapy, aimed at activation of the nervous, endocrine, immune and other systems of the patient. It helps to increase the vitality of the body, improve metabolic processes, increase resistance to diseases. The diet is important for intestinal dysbiosis, it must be complete, help to improve the digestion process, normalize the functional state of the digestive system, reduce impaired metabolic processes. It should contain 130-140 g of protein, 100-120 g of fat, 300-500 g of carbohydrates. Food processing is carried out in accordance with the underlying disease, complications, concomitant pathology.
Patients with latent dysbiosis are prescribed a diet within table 4c, with moderate severity and generalization of dysbiosis, diet 4a and 4b is recommended, taking into account the individual tolerance of the products and the prevalence of fermentation or putrefactive processes. For dysbacteriosis, it is advisable to use lactic acid containing normal intestinal flora: biokefir, bifidokefir, yoghurts, acidophilus milk, Narine mix, etc.
Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis phytotherapy
The second factor in the treatment is herbal medicine, which, unlike microphytotherapy, has strong anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-candidiasis and other properties, is a specific therapy. The treatment of intestinal dysbiosis with phytotherapy, depending on the composition of medicinal herbs, has a wide range of effects on the conditionally pathogenic flora.
The third important factor in the treatment of dysbiosis is the restoration of normal intestinal flora, the suppression of pathogenic flora, normalization of digestion, absorption, restoration of motor function, metabolic processes, and correction of the body's immune reactivity. These issues are addressed with the help of microphytotherapy, herbal medicine and drug therapy. The use of medicinal herbs can reduce the number of medicines, their doses, as well as the duration of administration.
Medicines for intestinal dysbiosis
In the treatment of dysbacteriosis of the 1st degree, microphytotherapy and the use of Bifilact Extra 1 capsule 3 times a day for 14-21 days or Bifikola 5 doses 2 times a day for 3-4 weeks are sufficient. In addition to microphytotherapeutic collection No. 2, tincture of Eleutherococcus is prescribed for 15-25 drops in the morning and at lunch 5 minutes before taking the infusion of herbs, and in the evening 20-25 drops of peony tincture. If patients have constipation that was prolonged and did not respond to the above therapy, “Hilak Forte” is additionally prescribed 30-50 drops in water with meals 3 times to increase intestinal acidity. Also recommended are drugs for dysbiosis, such as Mezim Forte 1 tablet 3 times a day with meals, Motilium 10 mg 3 times 30 minutes before meals. Laxatives were prescribed as the last, “Kofiol” 0.5-1 briquette for the night, “Bisacodyl” 1-2 tablets before bedtime, “Gutalaks” 20-25 drops before bedtime.
Also, with intestinal dysbiosis, enterosorbents are used: carbolene, activated carbon, Karbolong, Polyphenan, Smecta, etc., enzyme preparations Mezim Forte, Panzinorm Forte, Festal, Creon, etc. In recent years, they have used a combination of microfitotherapy with sowing the missing obligate microflora, vitamin therapy, and only in severe cases, antibiotics were used, based on the revealed pathogenic flora and its sensitivity to antibacterial therapy.
What combined drugs to use for dysbiosis
The combined medications for dysbiosis include the following: “Bifilong”, “Acylact”, “Acipol”, “Linex”, “Bifilact Extra”, “Bifidoform”, “Bifikol”, “Bifinorm” in combination with drugs that stimulate the growth of microorganisms of the normal intestinal flora: “Hilak Forte”, “ Lactulose ”,“ Dufalac ”, calcium pantothenate,“ Pamba ”, etc.
Depending on the form, the degree of dysbiosis, the severity of the clinical course, as well as the concomitant pathology, microphytotherapy fees No. 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, as well as collection No. 1 for microclysters in an individually selected dose are used. The course of treatment lasted 1.5-2 months.
Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis
This is a disease that develops with pathogenic microflora in the gastrointestinal tract, and it replaces a healthy tract. Dysbacteriosis causes poor absorption of food, it stagnates, is absorbed into the blood. Gases appear, you are puffed. The body in such situations does not receive many useful vitamins and minerals.
In scientific terms, this is a syndrome characterized by a violation of the mobile equilibrium of microflora, which normally colonizes the intestines. This complex symptom complex is characterized by quantitative and (or) qualitative changes in microbiocenosis.
Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis as a background state are observed with the development of chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, chronic allergic diseases, in case of weakening of local and general immunity. Intestinal dysbacteriosis can temporarily occur in almost any person and pass without impaired well-being and without consequences.
With an unfavorable development of the situation, the disease can be accompanied by clinical symptoms - gastrointestinal dysfunction, pseudo-allergic reactions.
The main diagnostic symptoms
The main symptom is an upset stool: unstable stool, constipation, or severe diarrhea. As for diarrhea, it is characterized by the formation of large amounts of deconjugated bile acids. And the result is a laxative effect, inhibiting the passage of water, causing structured changes in the mucosa. As for constipation, this symptom is detected depending on age. The older a person becomes, the more microflora loses the ability of the colon.
The second symptom is flatulence. It, in turn, can be associated with an excessive increase in gas in the colon, in which the walls in the intestine are broken. These symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis cause a severe sensation, there is an unpleasant taste in the mouth, a disturbance in the rhythm of the heart, and bakes in its area. Condition in such a period: weakness, weakness and nervousness. If flatulence increases sharply, there is a sharp shortness of breath, dilated pupils, bloating of the abdominal cavity and cooling of the extremities.
Additional signs of intestinal dysbiosis
Most often, intestinal dysbiosis occurs with symptoms of abdominal pain. Such pain is most often a monotonous stretching, the abdominal region bursting intensifies. It is sometimes accompanied by flatulence and then the pain is - "prickly" and strong.
When the mucus secretion of the irritated organ wall increases, decay begins. In such a situation, methane is formed, hydrogen sulfide, they increase flatulence. And the consequence of disturbances in the process of decay and fermentation changes both the composition and the type of feces. And with strong fermentation, feces become liquid, light and accompanied by a sour and unpleasant odor, causing burning in the anus.
Thiamine deficiency with dysbiosis is accompanied by a violation of the motility of the digestive canal, headaches and a violation of the peripheral nervous system.
A lack of nicotinic acid causes symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in the form of irritation, a person feels depressed and unbalanced, often yawns, increased salivation. Therefore, it is important to monitor nutrition in order to avoid all this and apply medication and alternative methods.
Degrees of Dysbacteriosis Disease
The initial phase does not cause dysfunctions and occurs as a reaction of an organism of a practically healthy person to the influence of unfavorable factors, such as, for example, violation of the diet. There are no clinical symptoms in this phase.
Symptoms of the disease in the second degree of the disease Symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in the form of digestive disorders are not clearly expressed: sporadic green stools with an unpleasant odor appear, with a pH shift to the alkaline side, sometimes, on the contrary, stool is delayed, nausea may occur.
Symptoms of the third degree of the disease.
This phase is manifested by dysfunction with motor disorders, enzyme secretion and absorption. Patients have rapid liquefied stools, often green, decreased appetite, poor health, children become lethargic, capricious.
Signs of dysbiosis in the fourth degree of the disease. This phase is characterized by functional disorders of the digestive system and disturbances in the general nutritional status, deficiency of body weight, pallor of the skin, decreased appetite, frequent stools mixed with mucus, greenery, sometimes blood, with a sharp putrid or acidic smell.
Treatment of intestinal dysbiosis with drugs
It is better to use folk remedies in combination with medicines, such as: Lactobacterin, Bifikol and others. The course of therapy should be at least one month.The first two weeks, the symptoms may worsen, as the absorption of toxins from the bacteria that die.
Types of Drug Therapy
Antibacterial agents for the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis: antibiotics and antiseptics. In the case of the use of antibiotics, the risk for the patient is weighed, and the use is prescribed for no more than five to seven days. Antibiotics such as ofloxacin or penicillin are used.
Best antimicrobial agents act on the intestines. The most common is furazolidone. Take 4 times a day for a week, a single dose - 100 mg.
Do not forget about the means for treatment aimed at restoring the intestines. They are divided into synbiotics, prebiotics and probiotics. The latter consist of microorganisms that activate the physiological and immune processes of the intestine. Ideally, bifid-containing products are used for with dysbiosis for three weeks. When the organism is populated with useful bacteria, the symptoms of the disease disappear, the microflora normalizes, and the process of repair of the intestinal mucosa is stimulated.
Important in the treatment process are medicines containing lactose. Their use must be brought to a systematic level, and they must be taken for a rather long period - preferably a month and a half. Lactobacilli are capable of synthesizing the necessary vitamins and enzymes that are involved in the gastrointestinal processes, in addition, they have pronounced immunomodulating properties that restore the protective functions of the body.
Probiotics have a non-microbial composition. These agents for the treatment of intestinal disease are designed to enhance the activity of metabolic processes in the intestine. First of all, they are stimulants for the development of beneficial bacteria. Basically, their composition includes the concentration of fatty, dairy, and amino acids. Taking such drugs improves the condition of the colon flora and normalizes stool.
Dysbacteriosis can be described as a change in the composition of beneficial microflora due to getting there and the development of pathogenic bacteria.
In this article we will discuss modern antibacterial drugs, antiseptics, enzymes and other groups of drugs. Read the doctor’s advice for treating the disease below.
Antibiotics for intestinal dysbiosis
Antibiotics are used for treatment. Antibiotics are necessary primarily to suppress excessive bacterial growth in the small intestine. For this, antibiotics from the group of tetracyclines, penicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones (Ofloxacin) and Metronidazole are usually used for dysbiosis.
Broad-spectrum antibiotics seriously upset the normal balance of “good” and “bad” microorganisms in the colon. Therefore, they are used only for violations of absorption and intestinal motility (in these cases, as a rule, the growth of microbial flora in the lumen of the small intestine develops).
Antibiotics are taken for 7-10 days as directed by the doctor inside at usual doses. In severe forms of staphylococcal dysbiosis, Cotrimoxazole and Nevigramon are used in the treatment.
When treating the disease, experts advise additionally using the following groups of medicines:
Antiseptics for the diagnosis of dysbiosis
In diseases accompanied by colonic dysbiosis, agents are prescribed that suppress the growth of protea, staphylococci, yeast fungi and other aggressive types of microbes, while exerting as little as possible other effects on the microbial flora. These include antiseptics: Intetrix, Ersefuril, Nitroxoline, Furazolidone, etc.
What enzymes can treat dysbiosis?
Prescribe enzymes that help improve digestion. In patients with pancreatic dysfunction (and related digestive disorders), medications for dysbacteriosis Creon, Pancytrate and others (all of them are pancreatic enzymes) have a good therapeutic effect.
For the treatment of steatorrhea (excretion with feces of fat) caused by various disorders of the liver, agents containing bile components are used (Panzinorm, Digestal, Festal, Enzistal, etc.).
If digestive disorders are caused by gastritis, Panzinorm is used - it contains hydrochloric acid and pepsin.
It is important to note that with dysbiosis, as a rule, flatulence is observed. In this case, treatment of intestinal dysbiosis is carried out with medicines containing, in addition to enzymes, dimethicone (Pancreoflet and Zimoplex).
In order to improve absorption, Essentiale, Legalon or Carsil are prescribed.
In order to relieve stress from the intestines, enzyme-based medications should be taken. They are able to improve the digestive process, relieve irritation. The main rule is that medicines should not contain bile.
To eliminate symptoms in the form of diarrhea, it is necessary to use sorbents. They may take the form of black charcoal tablets familiar to us. However, in recent years white sorbents have entered the arena, which are distinguished by a more pronounced beneficial effect. Drugs for dysbiosis of this group are designed to remove microbes and their metabolic products from the intestines, as a result of which the inflammatory process decreases, and the level of spasms and pains decreases.
Antimicrobial medicines for dysbiosis
How are the drugs used in the process of drug therapy, Ercefuril, Interix, Macropen, Bactrim and Diflucan. It is forbidden for parents to use any antibacterial agents on their own, as this will inevitably aggravate the development of the disease and provoke the resistance of pathogenic microbes to a certain group of drugs. And this, of course, greatly complicates the subsequent treatment process.
Biologically active drugs for dysbiosis
To restore digestion, biologically active substances are also used, which are divided into several groups. It:
Probiotics are living microorganisms: lactic acid bacteria, most often bifidobacteria or lactobacilli, sometimes yeast, which are normal inhabitants of a healthy human intestine. Probiotics are widely used as nutritional supplements, are part of yoghurts and other dairy products.
To eliminate pathogens, medicines containing lactobacilli are used. The most common are Yogurt and Narine. These medications can take the form of either tablets or capsules. During the treatment with lactic preparations, there is a decrease in bloating, pain symptoms, stabilization of the stool and the cessation of nausea are reduced. These drugs can also be used successfully by healthy people, in order to maintain the body and prevent dysbiosis in advance.
Prebiotics for bowel treatment
Prebiotics are indigestible components of food that contribute to improving health by stimulating the activity (or growth) of certain groups of bacteria that live in the colon. Prebiotics are treated with digestive enzymes and are not absorbed in the upper digestive tract. Prebiotics are found in dairy products, corn flakes, cereals, bread, onions, chicory field, garlic, beans, peas, artichoke, asparagus, bananas and many other products.
Synbiotics for intestinal dysbiosis
It is worth mentioning separately about the group of synbiotics. This is a mixture of probiotics and prebiotics. Synbiotics have a positive effect on human health, while improving survival in the intestines of live bacterial supplements and selectively stimulating the growth and activation of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria.
Eubiotics in the treatment of intestines
Mention should be made of eubiotics (based on anaerobic bacteria). We will introduce you to some drugs created on the basis of eubiotics.
Types of eubiotics in the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis
Bactisubtil-type intestinal medicines normalize the physiological balance in the intestine. They lead to the production of enzymes that break down carbohydrates, fats and proteins, resulting in the formation of an acidic environment that prevents the processes of decay. Medications contribute to the normal synthesis of B and P vitamins in the intestine.
Medications such as Flonivin BS (contain a pure culture of bacillus strain 1P5832 (109) with vegetative spores). Genetically immune to all types of sulfonamides, Nystatin, most broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Medications such as Biosporin .
Medications such as Bifidumbacterin .
The efficacy of liquid bifidobacterins is currently being investigated. However, it has already been proven that the effectiveness of treatment for dysbacterioses exceeds the effectiveness of dry bifidobacterins (the therapeutic effect developed during the treatment with liquid bifidobacterins after 1–2 months, while the use of dry bifidobacterins improved clinical and laboratory symptoms only after 3–6 months). This is due to the fact that liquid biopreparations, firstly, contain a greater number of microbial bodies, secondly, do not contain extraneous microflora, and thirdly, the viability of microorganisms in liquid medicines is much higher. Based on live bifidobacteria, the medicines Bifilis dry and Bifiform are created. They have anti-inflammatory activity and stimulate metabolic processes and erythropoiesis. Otherwise, they are similar to drugs like Bifidumbacterin.
Medicines Colibacterin They actively resist a wide range of pathogens and thereby normalize the physiological balance of intestinal microflora.
Intestinal medicines like Lactobacterin . Their lactobacilli are an integral part of normal microflora. The acidic environment created by lactobacilli contributes to the development of bifidoflora and other normal microflora in the intestine during dysbiosis, as it is optimal for these bacteria and thereby preserves and regulates the physiological balance of the intestinal microflora.
Acipol is a mixture of live acidophilic lactobacilli and warmed kefir fungi. It has a high biochemical acid-forming and antagonistic activity. Heated kefir fungi stimulate the body's protective properties during treatment.
Medications such as Acylact are a lyophilisate of live acidophilic lactobacilli.
Linex - One of the most balanced eubiotics, which includes live lyophilized bacteria. These bacteria are representatives of the normal intestinal microflora, they are resistant to antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents. Lactic acid bacteria, producing organic acids (lactic, acetic, propylene), create an acidic environment in the intestines with dysbiosis, which is unfavorable for the development of pathogens. As a result, the physiological balance of the intestinal microflora is restored. In addition to eubiotic action, the combination of microorganisms included in the drug provides a bactericidal and antidiarrheal effect.
Hilak forte medicine is a preparation in the form of drops for oral administration. They contribute to the maintenance in the intestines of acidity corresponding to the physiological norm, and create adverse conditions for the life of pathogens. Under the action of drugs, the natural synthesis of vitamins B and K is normalized. These drugs provide the treatment of dysbacteriosis to restore damaged intestinal microflora in infections of the gastrointestinal tract, increase the regenerative ability of intestinal wall cells, and restore the disturbed water-electrolyte balance in the intestinal lumen.
Enterol preparations they have an antimicrobial effect, they counteract such pathogens as clostridia, staphylococcus, candida, giardia. Increase local immune defense, have an antitoxic effect.
Other medicines for dysbiosis
We mention a few more common medications for those who are diagnosed with symptoms of dysbiosis created on the basis of eubiotics. These are drugs Nutrolin B (available in the form of capsules, tablets and syrup), Bifikol (available in vials), preparations Travis and Lifepack probiotics (available in capsules).
Features of treatment for dysbiosis drugs
Drug therapy consists in a direct effect directly on pathogens, their exclusion from the digestive system of the baby. In addition, drug therapy normalizes microbiocenosis, eliminates all kinds of manifestations that are pathological in nature. However, only a gastroenterologist has the right to decide on the appropriateness of drug therapy. It all depends on the stage of development of the disease, on the laboratory and clinical data of the baby.
You should know that it is almost impossible to get a stable result from the use of various drugs without first restoring the activity of the pancreas gland, normalizing the bile outflow.
For these reasons, usually the treatment of intestinal dysbiosis is carried out in several directions simultaneously. For dysbiosis, drugs are prescribed containing normalized intestinal flora components called probiotics.
As for the second stage of therapy, the use of such biological products as “Yogurt” (capsules), “Okarin”, “Narine” (fermented milk mixture) begins. Such preparations are made independently according to the proposed instructions.
The use of Lactulose (Duflac) is recommended if constipation is severe. Infants are often prescribed duflac, since it is a synthetic disaccharide that effectively lowers the pH level in the baby’s intestines, thereby inhibiting the growth of pathogenic organisms, facilitating the normal development of important and favorable intestinal bacteria.
No less effectively relieves the symptoms of Linex dysbiosis in infants with liquefaction of the stool. Children under one year of age are prescribed Enterol, which is very effective in eliminating the activity of Candida fungi directly in the intestines of crumbs. However, with other types of the disease, this drug is a less effective treatment.
Against the background of medical treatment, it is recommended to follow a diet, reduce the intake of carbohydrates that are found in sweet, flour, potatoes. Remember that the restoration of microflora should be taken seriously, which means that you need to undergo a full course of treatment, which can last up to two months, because first you need to get rid of all the pathogenic bacteria that upset the balance of microflora. The final treatment of intestinal dysbiosis involves the population of beneficial bifidobacteria and lactobacilli.
Video: Doctor L. Cherny on the symptoms of dysbiosis
A gastroenterologist can diagnose a violation of microflora after analyzing complaints, symptoms and a series of studies. First of all, this is a bacteriological analysis of feces. It helps to determine the quantity and quality of bacteria that are in 1 gram of feces. Based on these data, the gastroenterologist draws conclusions about the state of microflora.
A standard stool analysis - a coprogram - is also prescribed to confirm the pathological condition of microflora. With the help of a coprogram, you can find out about the presence of inflammatory phenomena, as well as how well the food is absorbed.
In addition to the study of feces, it is necessary to conduct a study of the digestive tract itself and the intestines in particular. For these purposes, a sigmoidoscopy can be prescribed - this is a medical procedure for examining the intestine, which is carried out using special tools through the rectum. The procedure allows you to draw conclusions about the condition of the walls of the colon and take a scraping of the wall for analysis and appropriate treatment of intestinal dysbiosis.
Colonoscopy of the intestine brings even better results. The procedure is similar to the previous one, but allows you to explore more distant sections of the colon, with a length of up to 1.5 meters.
There are many pathogenic bacteria that can shift the balance of microflora for the worse. In order to treat dysbiosis, you need to know which harmful microorganisms prevail in a particular case. In such a situation, it is necessary not only to analyze the symptoms, which is why there is an urgent need for an accurate diagnosis so as not to treat what is not.
The standard treatment regimen for dysbiosis, in which medications vary depending on the pathogenic microflora:
- Elimination of harmful intestinal microflora. Depending on the type and amount of harmful bacteria, the gastroenterologist prescribes certain medications. As a rule, these are antibiotics. At this stage, in the treatment of adult dysbiosis, it is important to remember that it is necessary to take medications regularly and not to reduce the course of medications yourself. Otherwise, intestinal bacteria may become resistant to specific types of antibiotics.
- Preparing to colonize beneficial bacteria. At this stage, with the help of medicines, a useful environment is formed in order for the necessary microflora to quickly adapt and begin its useful work in digesting food. These are usually probiotics.
- Intestinal colonization with beneficial lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and protobacteria. This process occurs with the help of prebiotics and synbiotics: it is these drugs that are created from cultures of beneficial bacteria.
In the process of treatment, other medications can be prescribed: to improve the enzymatic ability of the gastrointestinal tract, to normalize stool, if constipation or diarrhea is concerned, etc.
In the treatment of dysbiosis, the quality of food directly affects the state of microflora in the intestine. The more proper the nutrition, the better the beneficial lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the digestive tract will feel. At the first symptoms of malaise in the digestive tract, start to adhere to a diet, so you can slow down pathogenic processes and even stop their development.
The following foods should be excluded from the diet:
- whole milk,
- fruits and vegetables that cause intestinal fermentation (white cabbage, apples, melons, grapes, legumes),
- White bread,
- carbonated drinks,
- alcoholic drinks.
The diet should consist of healthy, wholesome foods.
Dairy products. Low-fat cottage cheese, non-acidic sour cream, yogurts, kefir are very useful during dysbiosis.
Lean meat. Cook the meat through stewing, bake in the oven or steamed.
Vegetables and fruits that do not cause fermentation. In order to avoid fermentation in the intestines, use heat-treated vegetables and fruits. Vegetables can be stewed or steamed. Apples can be consumed in baked form.
Compotes from sweet berries. Weak tea.
Eat small meals, 5-6 times a day. Do this regularly to avoid long breaks. Try to use high-quality products, without chemicals, preservatives or dyes, since all these substances are very detrimental to the beneficial microflora.
Treatment with folk remedies
Along with drug treatment, you can try folk remedies to combat dysbiosis. Before using any of the traditional medicine, be sure to consult your doctor.
With intestinal dysbiosis, it is useful to use homemade kefir. To prepare it, you will need pharmacy sourdough and whole milk. Milk must be boiled for several minutes and cooled to a temperature of 37-40 degrees. Add the leaven to milk according to the instructions and put in a warm place for 8-10 hours. After cooking, put kefir in the refrigerator. Drink a glass of kefir in the morning on an empty stomach and in the evening before meals. Keep it in the refrigerator for no more than two days.
Infusion of the stalk of the strawberries. For treatment, take 1 tablespoon of strawberry stalks, after drying and chopping them, pour a glass of water and boil over very low heat for 5 minutes. After cool and strain. Use the infusion of a quarter cup 4 times a day.
Garlic kefir. Grind 4 cloves of garlic and mix them in 2 cups kefir. Mix kefir thoroughly. Drink it half an hour before meals several times a day in half a glass. The course of treatment is 14 days.
Circason Lion-shaped. You need to take 2 tbsp. chopped herbs, pour 1 liter of water and boil for 5-7 minutes over low heat. Strain. Take a glass of broth in the morning on an empty stomach.
Picking herbs. Take the following herbs: St. John's wort, sage, calendula, chamomile. Make a mixture of herbs, adding 1 tablespoon each. each herb in a glass bowl. For a decoction, take 1 tbsp. mixture, pour it with a glass of water and bring to a boil in a water bath. Take a decoction of 1 tbsp. l before each meal.
The human body is densely populated with various kinds of microorganisms, which ensures its normal functioning. Their greatest accumulation is observed in the gastrointestinal tract, which is due to the processes of digestion of food and absorption of the resulting substances. The bacteria that colonize the digestive tract can be divided into:
- useful - lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, bacteroids, which ensure normal functioning, strengthen the immune system, reduce the likelihood of allergic reactions and cancer,
- opportunistic, or harmful - staphylococci, Candida fungi, Proteus, streptococci.
Beneficial microorganisms under ordinary conditions account for about 85% of the total "population" of the intestine, another 5% come out of the body naturally. 10% of the remaining bacteria are conditionally pathogenic, while providing beneficial support. This ratio ensures stable functioning of the digestive tract, but shifts can have negative consequences.
Various external or internal factors, acting on the body, can upset the balance, resulting in a decrease in the number of beneficial bacteria. Harmful immediately take their place, which provokes the development of dysbiosis.
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The microorganisms that inhabit the intestine take part in the synthesis of amino acids and vitamins, renewal of the mucous membrane of the organ, and activate the fermentation medium. The balance of intestinal bacteria ensures the smooth operation of the lymphatic system. Otherwise, a person remains defenseless against infections. Some destroy the accumulated toxins, absorb them from the body. With imbalance, self-poisoning can begin.
The disease is conditionally divided into two types. If the human intestines are initially colonized with bacteria in the wrong proportion, this is considered primary dysbiosis, and when the disease is caused by external factors, it is secondary.
Why does pathology develop?
If a person is absolutely healthy, then no abnormalities in the work of the gastrointestinal tract are observed. If signs of dysbiosis appear, they should be taken as a signal of instability in the system. Each person is individual, and organisms react differently to stimuli, triggering pathological processes. Among the causes of dysbiosis in an adult, the following are distinguished:
- regular nervous tension, stressful situations, depression,
- lack of sleep
- sedentary lifestyle,
- antibiotic treatment
- treatment with non-steroidal or hormonal drugs,
- infections or parasites in the intestines,
- courses of chemotherapy, radiation therapy,
- liver pathology
- disturbances in the endocrine system,
- chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract,
- excessive drinking
Most often, patients experience dysbiosis after taking antibiotics, which change the composition of the microflora and affect the intestinal epithelium.
Prolonged and uncontrolled use of antibiotics will cause bacteria to develop in the body that cannot be treated.
You can avoid the disease if you control your diet. Passion for diets, lack of food of plant origin and excessive consumption of sweet and protein foods will lead to negative consequences. Fiber is a breeding ground for beneficial microorganisms, and an excess of meat products can trigger rotting processes in the intestines. It is important to monitor the quality of the goods consumed, avoiding the content of nitrates, preservatives, antibiotics, etc. It is better to abandon snacks on the run, fast foods, constant food dry food.
How to recognize a disease
An imbalance develops gradually. At first, the patient may not even pay attention to minor malfunctions in the digestive tract. The following symptoms of intestinal dysbiosis in adults are distinguished:
- a feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen,
- nausea and bloating
- loose stools
- greenish color of feces,
In violation of the balance of beneficial bacteria, the first blow is the gastrointestinal tract. It is there that the breakdown of food with the participation of microorganisms occurs. If their number is insufficient, beneficial substances cannot be fully absorbed and are often perceived by the body as foreign. Because of this, nausea, vomiting and other abnormalities are observed.
If you do not immediately begin treatment for intestinal dysbiosis in adults, the condition will only worsen.
There are 4 stages in violation of the bacterial composition:
- The first stage is the initial stage, characterized by a small imbalance in the balance. Occurs with short antibiotic treatment, a change in the composition of water or food. In this state, there is no expressed symptomatology, rumbling in the abdomen, slight discomfort may appear. If you identify the disease in time and eliminate the adverse factor, then the balance of microflora will be restored on its own.
- The second stage is accompanied by a number of symptoms, which does not leave it unnoticed. There is an unpleasant aftertaste in the oral cavity, flatulence and bloating, appetite is reduced, but nausea and even vomiting appear. Constipation can alternate with an upset.
- The third stage is the active development of pathogens, in which the intestinal mucosa becomes inflamed. All signs characteristic of the second degree of the disease are aggravated, painful sensations in the abdomen are added. The digestion process is disturbed, because of which particles of undigested food and other uncharacteristic impurities are observed in the feces.
- The fourth stage - at this level of the disease, harmful microorganisms almost completely replace beneficial ones. This leads to serious digestion and absorption of beneficial elements. As a result, vitamin deficiency, anemia develop, a person becomes weak, lethargic, lethargic, sleeps poorly. If you do not cure dysbiosis in time, exhaustion and deep depression may develop. The risk of contracting life-threatening infectious diseases increases due to a decrease in the immune defense of the body.
Symptoms may be permanent or periodic. Some patients complain of deterioration of health after eating certain foods: milk, sugar, fruit, etc. If for some, antibiotic treatment is without complications, then others cause a severe form of imbalance. It all depends on the strength of the immune defense, the general condition of the body and what kind of lifestyle a person leads.
Before curing the pathology, the doctor needs to conduct a comprehensive examination of the patient. A thorough study of the issue eliminates other diseases that have similar symptoms. First, an anamnesis is made on the basis of a detailed questioning of the patient, palpation of the abdomen is performed. After this, a number of laboratory and endoscopic studies are done.
Analysis of feces allows you to determine the number of bifidobacteria. For this, a gram of feces is dissolved in a special solution and sown in a nutrient medium. If there is a decrease in the number of beneficial microorganisms and an increase in the number of pathogenic (fungi, staphylococci), this indicates the presence of dysbiosis.
Additionally, the following diagnostic measures can be prescribed:
- a blood test - which allows you to identify inflammatory processes in the body, bleeding in the intestinal cavity, and low hemoglobin indicates the presence of dysbiosis,
- irrigoscopy - a procedure in which the intestine is filled with contrast, then an x-ray is taken, in which any changes in the colon are clearly visible,
- gastroscopy - helps to determine the causes of the development of pathology, when the doctor suspects a malfunction in digestion,
- colonoscopy - an examination of the intestine, in which a probe is inserted through the anus (not more than 30 cm),
- sigmoidoscopy - replaces colonoscopy in some cases.
It is possible to treat dysbacteriosis in adults on their own only at the initial stages of the disease. You need to take probiotics and follow a strict diet. In more severe cases, it is recommended to seek help from a specialist.
Methods for treating the disease
To understand how to treat intestinal dysbiosis in adults, first you need to find out the cause of its occurrence. The treatment process must be approached comprehensively. There are a number of general recommendations for restoring balance in the digestive tract:
- restore motor skills
- to normalize the processes of digestion of food and absorption of nutrients,
- eliminate pathogens
- improve the body’s immune defense,
Therapeutic measures are selected individually in each individual case. This depends primarily on the degree of neglect of the disease. But in any case, you need to start with a diet. It is the adjustment of the diet that will quickly restore the normal functioning of the stomach and intestines.
Too fatty and spicy foods should be discarded. Such products only irritate the already damaged organ walls, as a result of which harmful bacteria grow and digestion is difficult. If bloating and flatulence, severe diarrhea are tormented, you must stop consuming everything that causes the fermentation process: yeast pastries, sour fruits, cabbage.
Meat and fish should not be fried, it is better to cook in the oven, steamed or just cook. You can not eat canned food, sweets, ice cream, drink whole milk, coffee and alcohol-containing products.
All foods used in food should be of high quality, without harmful impurities. Do not drink fluids immediately (after drinking). In this case, the gastric juice will be diluted, which will slow down the digestion process.
It is necessary to introduce into the diet products containing live lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. In any store you can find a wide assortment of dairy products with characteristic inscriptions: yogurts, kefir and others. Such foods should be eaten as often as possible, preferably every day.
Fiber of plant origin creates good conditions for normalizing the balance of intestinal microflora. It is found in non-acidic vegetables and fruits, cereals, bran bread or wholemeal. It is necessary to eat food rich in prebiotics (lactulose, inulin, galactose), indigestible substances, which become a breeding ground for beneficial bacteria. They can be obtained from: chicory, onions, wheat, garlic, corn. Of the pharmacy drugs, Dufalac is suitable.
To help the body cope with the processes of digestion of food, you can take enzyme medications (Festal, Creon, Mezim, Pancreatin). In the fight against pathogenic microorganisms, such drugs as Bactisubtil, Enterol, etc. will help. You can enhance the effect by taking sorbents in parallel, collecting all the negative substances and removing them.
Next, you need to colonize the intestines with beneficial bacteria. For this, the attending physician recommends taking probiotics. In pharmacies, a wide range of these drugs is presented, so that everyone can choose the one that is suitable in composition, price or quality. The most common are Linex, Normobact, Lactobacterin, Probionics, Bifidumbacterin, Laminolact, Bifiform. Do not forget that different drugs have different composition. To determine which microorganisms are necessary, a doctor should on the basis of laboratory tests.
Probiotics cannot populate the intestines with beneficial microflora. They only create a competitive environment for pathogenic organisms, which reduces the growth and development of the latter.
In order for the newly formed microflora to take root and strengthen in the body, Dufalac, Lactrofiltrum, Hilak-forte are prescribed. These preparations contain substances that stimulate the development of a healthy bacterial mass in the intestine. Well help in the fight against the imbalance of Narine and yogurt. They reduce pain in the abdomen, bloating, eliminate nausea, normalize stool. You can take even healthy people for preventive purposes.
In severe cases, when conventional probiotics are not enough due to the death of a large number of beneficial bacteria and colonization of the intestines by pathogenic organisms, the use of antimicrobial drugs is recommended. Intestinal antiseptics are poorly absorbed, do not affect the beneficial microflora, but destroy the harmful. These include Nifuroxazide and Intetrix. Antibacterial drugs are prescribed in the case of a clear identification of dysbiosis and its pathogen. Their reception is carried out strictly on the recommendation and under the supervision of a physician. Such therapy can be enhanced by bacteriophages, vitamins, biostimulants and immunomodulators.
For those who do not take pills or want to enhance their effect, traditional medicine will come to the rescue. Various decoctions, infusions based on medicinal plants will help to cure dysbiosis in adults with folk remedies.
The most effective in the fight against pathogenic organisms is recognized as garlic. It also eliminates the processes of fermentation and decay. For several weeks you need to eat a clove of garlic on an empty stomach before breakfast and after dinner after one and a half to two hours. A break is not done, you can drink it with water or dairy products.
In addition, in non-traditional methods of treatment are used: propolis, eucalyptus, sage, coltsfoot, chamomile, hemophilus, oak bark, fruits of bird cherry and rose hips, plantain, yarrow.
Like any disease, dysbiosis is much easier to prevent than to cure. Compliance with food hygiene, a healthy lifestyle, timely access to the hospital in case of violations in the digestive tract will become the key to the health of the whole body.
How to identify signs of dysbiosis in adults?
Violations of the functionality and useful composition of the intestinal microflora do not appear immediately, which complicates the diagnosis. The easiest way to identify signs of dysbiosis is to change your diet. Pathogenic bacteria react sharply to dairy and sugar products. This is due to the fact that dairy products are a source of beneficial bacteria that return the acidic environment to normal. Sugar is a source of fermentation and provokes gas formation and bloating. Symptoms characteristic of dysbiosis depend on what stage the disease is at:
- An increase in the concentration of pathogenic bacteria in a small amount. It manifests itself in rare attacks of diarrhea and rumbling of the intestine.
- A sharp decrease in the number of useful flora. It manifests itself in flatulence, upset stomach and pain in the navel.
- A critical decrease in beneficial microflora. It manifests itself in chronic diarrhea, inflammation of the intestinal mucosa, pain in the area of the appendages.
- Complete depletion of microflora. Manifested in malabsorption of beneficial substances through the intestinal wall, lack of vitamins, general weakness and blood poisoning.
Taking medication to treat a disease
At the first signs of a violation of the functionality of the gastrointestinal tract, you must consult a doctor. Dysbacteriosis occurs for a long time without symptoms, therefore, these types of imbalance are distinguished:
- Latent. Asymptomatic course of the disease.
- Local. Inflammation appears in certain parts of the intestine.
- Resistant. Pathological changes in microflora in all departments.
Methods for diagnosing intestinal microflora disorders
Signs of dysbiosis can persist for a long time in a state of incubation and only partially manifest. It is impossible to identify the presence of pathology and correctly diagnose without intestinal palpation. Laboratory studies can accurately determine the disturbance of microflora and stop the development of pathogenic bacteria at an early stage. Effective diagnostic methods are:
- Blood test. With dysbiosis, the inflammatory process provokes a decrease in hemoglobin level.
- Colonoscopic analysis. This is a method of local diagnosis by introducing a probe into the anus that evaluates the state of the intestine in this segment.
- Irrigoscopic analysis. A method of accurate analysis of the state of microflora, based on contrast analysis. A specially introduced substance allows you to evaluate the degree of intestinal damage through x-rays.
- Gastroscopic analysis. A method for identifying the causes of an imbalance.
There are other diagnostic methods: microbiological, coprological, PCR - diagnostics, HMS and biochemical analyzes, which allow you to create a complete clinical picture of the patient's condition.
Blood test to diagnose the disease
Causes of dysbiosis in adults
The causes of the imbalance of microflora can be caused by various factors. Among such causes are a violation of peristalsis and bowel movements. The body can not cope with the conclusion of toxins and products of organic processing, which accumulate in the colon and cause inflammation. Intoxication of the body can be caused by a combination of factors. The most common causes of intestinal imbalance:
The course of taking antibiotics destroys not only pathogenic microorganisms, but also contributes to the destruction of beneficial bacteria that perform the protective function of the body. As a prophylaxis of dysbiosis when taking antibiotics, it is recommended to drink drugs that restore the natural microflora.
- Improper nutrition.
Eating properly means balancing your diet and distributing the amount of protein, fat and carbohydrates. Excess nutrients contribute to rotting and fermentation, which is stressful for the body. It is necessary to monitor the quality and volume of food consumed. It is right to eat as much at a time as it fits in the palm of your hand.
Infectious diseases weaken the body, and immunity throws all its forces into the treatment of pathogenic infections while harmful microorganisms in the intestine begin to destroy the microflora. It is recommended to use vitamins and eat right, thereby strengthening the protective functions of the immune system.
- Pathological diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
If you do not cleanse the body for a long time and do not treat chronic gastrointestinal diseases, then every meal of the body becomes a huge stress. From excess digestion products, unprocessed residues accumulate on the walls of the intestine and provoke inflammation of the mucosa.
- Systemic diseases.
Diseases that affect entire body systems require treatment, which involves the use of various drugs that destroy the microflora.
Prevention of dysbiosis in adults
Dysbacteriosis is an extremely dangerous disease. Violation of the intestinal microflora provokes the development of diseases of other systems. To prevent the development of imbalance in the intestine in simple ways:
- eat right,
- treat gastrointestinal diseases on time,
- do sport,
- exclude antibiotics unnecessarily,
- take enzymes with a course of antibiotics.
Methods for the treatment of dysbiosis in adults
It is necessary to properly treat dysbiosis using a scheme from a set of methods for restoring beneficial microflora.
- Normalization of microflora in the colon.
- Destruction of pathogenic bacteria in the colon.
- Restoring the protective function of the immune system.
- Improving bowel movement and functioning.
The treatment of dysbiosis in adults requires the use of medications. Affected areas of the intestine require a quick recovery, which is beyond the power of folk recipes. Treatment of microflora imbalance at home will help identify the causes and eliminate the symptoms of the disorder. It is recommended to treat dysbiosis in the complex:
- Prebiotics - create a favorable environment.
- Probiotics are a source of live bacteria cultures.
- Antagonists are bacteria that inhibit the reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms.
- Combined drugs - a source of obligate flora.
- Synbiotics - a stimulator of the propagation of obligate bacteria.
- Antiseptics - inhibit the development of pathogenic flora.
- Bacteriophages - affect a certain type of pathogenic bacteria.
Drugs for the treatment of imbalance are excreted from the body naturally. Drug treatment is an effective method of therapy. It is recommended to consult a doctor before taking anti-dysbiosis drugs.