Poisoning

Atrophic gastritis: symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

The modern rhythm of life, malnutrition lead to the spread of various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic atrophic gastritis is one of the most common ailments. The danger of the disease lies in the fact that it, possibly, provokes the development of a precancerous state of the stomach.

Causes of the disease

In a healthy organ, the cells forming the mucous membrane are in a constant state of renewal. The process is necessary because the walls of the stomach are exposed to the aggressive effects of digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid. Gastritis develops if the defense mechanism stops working.

Currently, the main factor affecting the occurrence of gastritis is Helicobacter pylori infection. The causative agents of the disease adversely affect the receptors responsible for controlling the formation of hydrochloric acid. Excessive amounts of acid lead to inflammation of the gastric mucosa - chronic gastritis, which, in turn, develops into atrophic.

Due to the violation of the cellular regenerative process, the endocrine glands cease to perform their function correctly, their number decreases, which means that the gastric juice is produced in insufficient volume. Instead, mucus enters the stomach, which is not able to participate in the digestion process. Therefore, at this stage, the disease is accompanied by already low acidity.

The peculiarity of the failure of the restoration process of the mucous membrane is that the glandular cells, ceasing to perform the secretory function, produce immature cells similar to themselves. Therefore, gastritis with atrophy is aggravated, and the cellular structure of the mucosa gradually dies, and the body ceases to digest food.

Various inflammatory diseases can provoke degenerative changes. A predisposition to atrophy of the gastric mucosa can be laid genetically.

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Chronic atrophic gastritis adversely affects organs that are connected anatomically or functionally with the stomach. Intoxication of the body, caused by pathology of the secretory function of the stomach, worsens the state of the nervous system and disrupts the blood formation process.

Types of disease

Depending on the type of atrophy of the gastric mucosa, several types of gastritis are distinguished in gastroenterology:

  • If the process of degeneration of glandular cells has not passed the initial stage, subatrophic or superficial gastritis is diagnosed.
  • Focal is a disease in which cell atrophy is observed in some areas of the mucosa.
  • If gastritis is triggered by the course of any autoimmune disease, or the patient has a hereditary predisposition to inflammation of the gastric mucosa, we are talking about autoimmune gastritis.
  • Multifocal gastritis is diagnosed when cell death does not affect individual foci, but the entire inner surface of the stomach. Usually in the antrum there are areas in which the process of hyperplasia is expressed. This form of the disease refers to precancerous conditions.

Symptoms of atrophic gastritis

You can suspect an ailment by the characteristic sensations that constantly haunt a person. After each meal, an unpleasant severity appears in the epigastric region, which is accompanied by aching pain. Often there is a feeling of fullness of the stomach, which the patient experiences regardless of how much he ate. This feeling is accompanied by burping. Bad breath is a hallmark of this type of gastritis.

The patient is followed by frequent poisoning. This is due to a decrease in the production of hydrochloric acid, which in the stomach of a healthy person is able to destroy many pathogens that come from food. With atrophic gastritis, this protection does not work. Often the disease is accompanied by flatulence.

Antral atrophic gastritis is accompanied by heartburn - the localization of the centers of death in the lower region of the stomach does not block the formation of hydrochloric acid. The patient's tongue is covered with a thick white coating. In the morning there is an unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth.

A person suffering from atrophic gastritis usually has a painful appearance - vitamins and minerals are not absorbed by the damaged mucosa. In addition to appearance, the immune system suffers, which negatively affects the condition of nails, hair and skin. The patient may complain of dizziness and headaches.

With atrophic gastritis, a person loses weight very much. Often the use of fatty foods and dairy products causes nausea and vomiting.

IMPORTANT! If atrophic gastritis is not accompanied by pain, this often indicates the development of cancer of the stomach.

Diagnosis of the disease

With complaints of discomfort in the stomach, you should contact your gastroenterologist. The patient must have a complete blood count. Often, the disease causes iron deficiency anemia. The development of gastritis causes neutrophilic leukocytosis of moderate severity. Frequent stool disorders lead to dehydration and, as a result, to blood clotting.

Examination of feces for occult blood is performed to detect ulceration on the gastric mucosa. The presence in the stool of unchanged particles of fiber of muscle fibers indirectly confirms secretory insufficiency of the stomach.

A urinalysis is prescribed to identify or rule out concomitant disorders of the urinary system.

Detection of the pathogen Helicobacter pylori in the body is carried out in one of the possible ways: a breath test, a blood test or feces.

Hardware diagnostic methods

To assess the state of the gastric mucosa and the stage of the degenerative process allows fibroesophagogastroduodenoscopy (FEGDS). An optical examination can be performed several times to track the dynamics of therapy. During the procedure, a special composition is applied to the mucous layer, which pigments the foci of atrophy.

Then, if necessary, tissue sampling for biopsy is performed. For examination, tissue samples are taken from several departments of the organ. Laboratory analysis of the materials thus obtained provides the most reliable picture of the disease. With its help, you can find out the depth of atrophic tissue damage, exclude or confirm the presence of atypical cells, identify the defeat of the pathogen Helicobacter pylori infection.

Severe atrophic gastritis leads to a decrease in the size of the stomach. The rate of advancement of contents through the esophagus is significantly reduced. The shape and motility of the body is examined using radiography. Previously, the patient drinks a contrast medium. If a precancerous process is observed, or there is a suspicion of the development of a malignant tumor, a spiral computed tomography is prescribed to the patient.

Daily pH data allow you to analyze how the acidity of the stomach changes during the day. There are several diagnostic methods:

  • An acidogastrometer is fastened to the patient’s belt, which receives data from a probe through the nose through the stomach.
  • The probe can replace a special capsule, which the patient must swallow. The information obtained with its help is also displayed on the device.

If for some reason the introduction of the probe is not possible, an acid test is prescribed. The patient takes drugs that react with acid in the stomach, while changing the color of urine.

Endoscopic pH measurement is performed during gastroscopy. Using a probe with a measuring electrode at the end, the pH level is checked at several standard points and analyzed by an acid gastrometer.

Treatment of gastritis with atrophy

Before starting treatment, doctors recommend stopping smoking and drinking alcohol. Treatment includes two components: a proper diet and a course of medications, which varies based on the etiology of the disease.

If gastritis occurs against the background of an autoimmune disease, the patient is prescribed a short course of small doses of glucocorticoid hormones.

Eradication treatment is prescribed for the detection of the pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Antimicrobials are taken to destroy the microorganism. As a rule, antibiotics are combined. Both pill administration and intramuscular administration are possible.

Proton pump inhibitors are prescribed to reduce the production of gastric juice with high acidity. If the pH of the stomach is below normal, bismuth preparations are prescribed. They form a protective layer on the damaged gastric mucosa.

In parallel, symptomatic treatment is carried out aimed at improving gastric motility (prokinetics), relieving pain, and reducing gas formation.

Reception of gastroprotectors (De-Nol, Almagel) is aimed at stimulating recovery processes and reducing inflammation. Pancreatin replacement therapy is performed to improve digestion.

During the period of remission of the disease, patients are advised to undergo annual treatment at balneological resorts.

IMPORTANT! Atrophic gastritis is treated with conservative methods. Surgical intervention is indicated only with malignancy of the process.

Proper nutrition during treatment

Diet therapy is a necessary component at every stage of treatment of chronic atrophic gastritis. Diet table No. 1A is indicated in the early days of an exacerbation of the disease. The menu includes dishes that do not have a mechanical, thermal or chemical load on the damaged mucous membrane of the stomach.

Foods are cooked for a long time: boiled in water or steamed. Before serving, the dishes are ground to a semi-liquid or porridge-like state. Seriously limited salt intake. Spicy, sour, salty and sweet foods, raw vegetables, tea, coffee, carbonated and sour-milk drinks are completely excluded from the diet. The menu is designed for six meals in small portions.

The calorie content of this table is reduced, so doctors try to transfer the patient to diet No. 1 as quickly as possible. This menu is characterized by the gradual inclusion of more high-calorie and fiber-rich dishes. The fractional meal regimen is maintained.

Upon achievement of stable remission, the patient is recommended to adhere to the dietary nutrition of table No. 2. With this diet, the body receives a sufficient amount of nutrients and vitamins. Dishes can be not only cooked, but stewed and occasionally fried. To provide a gentle mechanical regimen for the gastrointestinal mucosa, the products are ground. Food rich in coarse fiber, fiber or connective tissue is recommended to be wiped.

Patients diagnosed with gastritis with atrophy should refuse to use hard-to-digest foods (fatty foods, smoked meats), as well as dishes that have a chemical irritating effect on the gastric mucosa (spicy, acidic foods, a large number of spices).

IMPORTANT! Carbonated drinks, alcohol, strong coffee are excluded from the diet at any stage of the disease.

Traditional medicine against gastritis

Traditional medicine offers many ways to treat stomach diseases. However, it must be borne in mind that it is possible to use alternative recipes only during the period of disease remission. The acute form of gastritis should be treated in a hospital under the supervision of doctors.

  • The use of chamomile broth prevents the development of exacerbations of the disease. The plant has wound healing, anti-inflammatory and bactericidal effects. If gastritis is accompanied by low acidity, it is useful to add honey to the drink.
  • The oatmeal infusion has an enveloping effect due to its mucous consistency. To prepare a therapeutic agent, the raw materials are grinded; at this stage, the consistency of flour should not be achieved. A tablespoon of the resulting powder is poured with 200 ml of boiling water. The mixture is preferably placed in a thermos for 5 hours. The resulting broth is filtered. The drug is taken 100 ml twice a day before meals. Reduction of unpleasant manifestations of the disease begins to occur after the first day of admission.

  • Sea buckthorn oil is a unique product that is often used in traditional medicine. The regenerative and anti-inflammatory properties of this substance are excellent for restoring the gastric mucosa, and the vitamins and trace elements it is rich in will help the body weakened by the disease to recover. The product is useful in its pure form. Another method suggests combining two tablespoons of butter with a glass of warm milk. The mixture is used on an empty stomach. Take this medicine should be at least 30 days.
  • The enveloping properties of flaxseed decoction have long been known. To prepare the product, one spoonful of seeds must be boiled in a glass of water for about 5 minutes. The resulting mucus is filtered and consumed in a sip during the day. The use of this decoction allows you to reduce pain during gastritis and improve the motility of the gastrointestinal tract. You can improve the taste of the drug by adding lemon juice. Seeds can be added to various dishes during cooking.

IMPORTANT! Useful only freshly prepared broth. The medicinal use of yesterday’s remedy will not have the desired effect.

  • Marsh calamus root stimulates the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Vodka tincture on crushed dry raw materials is infused for 14 days, then filtered. Store the medicine preferably in a cool dark place, take 15 drops before meals. The drug is useful for patients in whom the type of gastritis is accompanied by low acidity.

Gastritis Prevention

Chronic atrophic gastritis is difficult to cure. It is much easier to prevent its development. Preventive measures should be taken by everyone, especially people who have a genetic predisposition to the disease.

Refusing to drink alcohol and smoking significantly reduces the risk of developing atrophic gastritis. Doctors recommend treating Helicobacter pylori infection in a timely manner and adhering to food hygiene rules to prevent the risk of infection.

People predisposed to inflammatory diseases of the stomach, it is recommended to adhere to a balanced diet, do not eat too spicy, pickled, smoked food, exclude carbonated sugary drinks. Dry food, hot or cold dishes can trigger the development of atrophy of the gastric mucosa.

Chronic atrophic gastritis is an insidious disease, it can cause the growth of atypical (cancerous) cells in the stomach. Atrophy of the mucous membrane is an irreversible process. This disease is easier to prevent through preventive measures. In this case, it will not pose a danger of transformation into oncology.

Causes of pathology

Specific reasons that could lead to the development of atrophic gastritis are not yet known in modern science, but among indirect risk factors, the presence of chronic inflammatory processes in the stomach, secondary gastrointestinal pathologies and natural changes that are observed in older people (age-related changes) are distinguished:

Autoimmune processes - the development of antibodies to the stomach’s own cells (parietal), which perform the function of hydrochloric acid secretion (in this case, necrotizing cells and reducing the amount of acid are observed). It is also possible the formation of antibodies to gastromukoprotein, as a result of such changes, the binding of gastromukoprotein and vitamin B12 is disrupted. Another type of antibody can infect proteins that bind gastrin. This leads to the death of receptors and a decrease in the production of hydrochloric acid.

Helicobacteriosis - increased reproduction of bacteria Helicobacter pylori in the stomach provokes a destructive effect on the gastric mucosa. But this type of bacteria also quietly exists in a healthy stomach, without provoking pathology. With a number of provoking factors: malnutrition, a general decrease in immunity, irritating substances - bacteria may become active and the inflammatory process begins.

Concomitant gastrointestinal pathologies, namely enterocolitis, cholecystitis and pancreatitis.

Alcohol abuse can cause atrophic and alcoholic gastritis.

Chronic intoxication of the body with severe infectious pathologies.

Medicines - uncontrolled administration of various pharmaceuticals can significantly affect the condition of the gastric mucosa.

This type of gastritis is considered to be the most dangerous condition, which is precancerous. In the age group after 50 years, such a pathology is recorded in 60% of cases.

Causes of occurrence

The reasons for the onset of atrophic gastritis are poorly studied by medicine, however, it is believed that the symptoms of atrophic gastritis appear when:

  • Abuse of aggressive products (spices, seasonings, marinades),
  • Excessively hot or cold dishes,
  • Poorly chewed food
  • Chemical poisoning,
  • Tobacco smoking, the use of alcohol-containing drinks and caffeine leads to damage to the mucosa and provokes the appearance of atrophic gastritis,
  • Reflux. The release of intestinal contents into the stomach,
  • Uncontrolled medication
  • Helicobacter pylori infection
  • Impaired immune system.

Signs of Atrophic Gastritis

Symptoms of this pathology depend on the severity of the atrophic process. According to the degree of intensity, this type of gastritis is usually divided into atrophic-hyperplastic, moderately expressed and pronounced. It all starts with the death of tissues on the body and the bottom of the stomach, in those departments where the parietal cells are located. When the process of cell destruction becomes especially intense, there is a sharp decrease in the secretion of pepsinogens, gastromucoprotein and hydrochloric acid - the main enzymes that are required for normal digestion of food. The lack of gastromucoprotein can significantly affect the occurrence of B12-deficient anemia in patients, since it is responsible for the absorption of vitamin B12.

Among the symptoms of atrophic gastritis are:

Sensation of heaviness and fullness in the stomach after eating.

Occasionally, dull stomach pain may be present.

A frequent symptom is belching with air, which, with a pronounced process, is accompanied by the appearance of a rotten smell from the mouth, dryness and bitterness in the mouth.

A decrease in appetite leads to a decrease in body weight, over time, the progression of the process becomes the cause of exhaustion.

The stool becomes unstable - frequent constipation and diarrhea.

A person begins to quickly become saturated.

There is a clinic of iron deficiency and B12 deficiency anemia: pallor of the skin, fatigue, drowsiness, dizziness, lethargy, weakness. Fragility of nails and hair, shortness of breath in exertion and stitching pain in the chest.

After eating, especially if it is rich in carbohydrates, sweating, dizziness and weakness appear.

The patient has a characteristic “polished tongue”.

Vitamin A deficiency can cause a decrease in visual acuity.

With a relapse of the pathology, a thick white coating appears on the tongue.

Vitamin C deficiency causes gum bleeding, brittle and hair loss, and brittle nails.

With a prolonged course of the disease, patients begin to develop pallor of the skin and dry skin due to an anemic condition.

With progressive hypovitaminosis, cracks in the corners of the lips (seizures) may appear, pustular lesions on the skin, reduced immunity may affect susceptibility to fungal, infectious and viral diseases.

Types of Atrophic Gastritis

Atrophic gastritis is classified by the degree of change in the mucous membrane and is divided into several types.

  • Superficial - is characterized by minor damage to the mucosa and proceeds without symptoms.
  • Subatrophic - the initial stage,
  • Diffuse - a transitional link between subatrophic and focal atrophic gastritis.
  • Focal - the development of minor areas of atrophy with a decrease in the number of glands,
  • Antral - affects the part of the organ located on the eve of the duodenum. This type is characterized by changes in the structure of the gastric walls.
  • Multifactorial - the disease spreads to all parts of the body. This condition is precancerous.

The course of atrophic gastritis may be

  • Chronic - an independent disease, which is characterized by a long course with progressive cell degeneration. With this type of atrophic gastritis, the entire gastrointestinal system suffers.
  • Acute - stage of exacerbation of the disease.

Pathology is also divided by the severity of symptoms:

  • Moderate,
  • Expressed,
  • With the occurrence of fatty degeneration and the formation of a hollow tumor filled with fluid.

Signs of atrophic gastritis are not difficult to detect. Most patients complain of an uncomfortable feeling after eating (heaviness, fullness of the stomach and increased flatulence).

After eating, belching with air is noted, which eventually acquires the taste of spoiled meat, then heartburn occurs.

Along with this, the patient has an atrophic gastritis, the desire to eat disappears, and the secretory function is disrupted, these factors lead to permanent weight loss. There is also rumbling in the stomach, a violation of the stool and fatigue. Occasionally, increased sweating and dizziness may appear after eating.

With the progression of the disease, the absorption of the most important elements for the human body is disrupted. The lack of vitamin A leads to a gradual loss of vision, thinning and dry skin. A lack of vitamin C provokes bleeding of the gums, flaking of the nail plates and hair loss.

Types of chronic atrophic gastritis

In medicine, there are several terms that characterize the process of atrophy of the gastric mucosa. The concept of atrophic gastritis implies the presence of chronic pathology, which lasts for years with periods of exacerbations and remissions.

Subatrophic gastritis is a form of pathology in which the process of mucosal atrophy is at the initial stage, this term is a little outdated and is practically not used in clinical practice, it's just atrophic gastritis.

Focal - a type of gastritis in which only some areas are susceptible to atrophic changes, while in this area there is a decrease in the number of glands and their change with ordinary epithelium.

Autoimmune - gastritis, which is provoked by a hereditary predisposition and arises as a result of autoimmune diseases, namely: B12 deficiency anemia, malfunctioning of the thyroid gland, Addison's disease.

Multifocal atrophic gastritis with focal hyperplasia is a type of pathology in which not individual foci or sections of the stomach die, but the main part of the glands of the fundal department and its mucosa is depleted. Moreover, the processes of hyperplasia are more characteristic for the antrum. Here hyperplastic gastritis begins to form, which is commonly called granulomatous, lymphocytic, hypertrophic, warty or polypous. However, metaplastic changes in the epithelial layer according to the intestinal type are more characteristic, namely, precancerous changes.

All of the listed options for the chronic form of atrophic gastritis are the cause of cancer tension, since with the progression of the process, the risk of ulceration of the mucosa, polyps and cysts increases significantly, which provokes the growth of malignant cells.

Diagnosis and therapy of pathology

The diagnosis of atrophic gastritis can be made on the basis of the results of such diagnostic measures:

immunological blood examination,

A gastroenterologist prescribes treatment of atrophic gastritis taking into account the stage at which the destructive process is located, the state of secretory function and the general condition of the patient, taking into account the dynamics of concomitant pathologies:

Diet - with this type of gastritis, diet food is prescribed. Proper nutrition should be aimed at reducing chemical, mechanical and thermal injuries of the gastric mucosa:

exclude coarse fibers, grind and cook food for a couple,

exclude hot and cold drinks and dishes,

exclude all smoked, fried, salty, spicy and sour dishes, canned food and spices,

exclude coffee, carbonated and alcoholic drinks, consume only cocoa, mineral water, mousse, weak vinegar, jelly and jelly,

exclude confectionery - cakes, sweets, chocolate,

it is advisable to eat boiled meat, fish, cereals, soups, boiled fruits and vegetables, non-sour dairy products.

Pain relief. In the presence of severe pain, you can use anticholinergic drugs and antispasmodics.

Stimulation of the muscles of the stomach. Medicines (Motilium, Cerucal) can be prescribed to improve gastric motility.

Replacement therapy. In the presence of serious violations of the secretion of hydrochloric acid, as well as pepsinogen, natural gastric juice can be used - Acidin-Pepsin, Pepsidil, Abomin. Pancreatic preparations can also be used - Pancreatin, Creon, Pancremen, Mezim.

Vitamins The doctor prescribes vitamin B12, folic acid, other vitamin complexes and iron preparations in the presence of anemia.

Sanatoriums. Patients for atrophic gastritis are recommended spa treatment.

Complications and consequences of atrophic gastritis

A well-known fact is that atrophic gastritis has an increased risk of transformation into oncology. Particular oncological tension is caused by atrophic gastritis with low acidity, according to statistics, the likelihood of developing stomach cancer with this form of pathology is about 15%. For obvious reasons, mucosal atrophy creates favorable conditions for the negative effects of carcinogens, while the antitumor protection of the organ is also significantly reduced. This risk is increased five times, compared with non-atrophic gastritis.

How to avoid the occurrence of cancer in the presence of atrophic gastritis? The answer to this question is a banal statement: the earlier the pathology is identified, the higher the chances of its successful cure. When monitoring patients with chronic gastritis, the identification of pathology at the onset of the progression of atrophy is of utmost importance, and it is more advisable to conduct non-invasive treatment.

How to survey

If atrophic gastritis is suspected, the patient will undergo procedures:

  • Gastroscopy. With the help of this study, a specialist studies the condition of the mucous membranes of the upper gastrointestinal tract,
  • FGDS. Determines the location of the lesion of atrophic gastritis and establishes its type,
  • Biopsy. Taking small pieces of gastric mucosa for further laboratory analysis,
  • pH meter The method is designed to measure the amount of hydrochloric acid in different parts of the stomach,
  • Sounding. It is carried out to study gastric secretion and determine acidity,

To determine the bacterial atrophic gastritis caused by the Helicobacter pylori bacterium, a mucosal examination, a clinical blood test and a respiratory test are performed to determine the presence of bacteria by urine analysis.

Widely used for diagnosis and radiological studies. The procedure is performed on an empty stomach and allows you to consider the relief of the gastric walls and determine their tone.

Who to contact

At the first suspicion of atrophic gastritis, you should contact your local pediatrician. He will conduct an initial examination and will send an appointment to a narrow specialist - a gastroenterologist. After the studies, he will explain how to treat atrophic gastritis and prescribe the appropriate drugs.

Treatment of atrophic gastritis of the stomach requires an integrated approach. It is proved that the formed disease is not treatable, pathological changes in the cells cannot be reversed and turned into glandular ones.

Drugs

There are proven treatment regimens for atrophic gastritis with medicines, at different stages of its manifestation, which does not allow its further progression.

  • Erection It is aimed at combating Helicobacter pylori bacterium. To suppress its vital functions, tetracycline and penicillin antibiotics and antibacterial drugs are used (Trichopolum),
  • Medicines to improve the digestion process. Hydrochloric acid and Acedin-pepsin are prescribed. Vitamin intake is indicated for the detection of anemia,
  • Preparations stimulating the restoration of the mucous membrane. They also have a protective and enveloping property (Almagel). Recently, bismuth preparations (De-nol) are increasingly being used,
  • To restore motility, a trimedate is used,
  • Pain sensations are usually stopped by drugs antispasmodics (Omez, Omeprazole).

Important! It is necessary to treat atrophic gastritis of the stomach at the initial stage. With a diffuse change in the walls of the stomach, only supportive therapy with a strict diet is possible in order to slow down the development of the disease.

Folk remedies

Therapy of atrophic gastritis includes treatment with folk remedies.

  • Herbal collection of plantain, wormwood and St. John's wort flowers are brewed in equal proportions to 250 ml of boiling water and insisted in a thermos for 10-12 hours. The resulting infusion should be drunk during the day. The course of treatment is 21 days.
  • Treatment of atrophic gastritis of the stomach can be carried out using parsley. The crushed roots of the plant are poured with boiling water and aged in a steam bath for 30 minutes. 80 g of raw materials per glass of water. Drink a spoon before meals.
  • Freshly squeezed potato juice is recommended to take 100 ml 40 minutes before meals.

Attention! Before starting treatment with herbs, you need to consult your doctor.

Nutrition for atrophic gastritis of the stomach

Atrophic gastritis requires a serious correction of the diet. Products should be consumed in boiled, stewed, steamed and baked form. Fresh vegetables containing coarse fiber must be ground in a blender to a mushy state.

Nutrition for atrophic gastritis of the stomach implies a reduced amount of salt (not more than 10-12 g per day). The temperature of food should be moderate, and the portions are small.

The diet for atrophic gastritis of the stomach includes

  • White crackers, unleavened bread, biscuits,
  • Soups should be boiled in vegetable broth, weak meat broth (with a high content of hydrochloric acid), milk.
  • Boiled meat is scrolled in a meat grinder, you can cook soufflé, steam cutlets from it.
  • Steamed fish. It is permissible to use soaked herring.
  • With low acidity, the use of fermented milk products is allowed, with high acid levels, cottage cheese and kefir are prohibited.
  • Soft boiled eggs, omelettes.
  • Of the cereals, rice, buckwheat, and hercules are recommended.
  • Variety of the diet with atrophic gastritis of the stomach can be sweets. But their list is limited, it is permissible to use honey, sweet jelly cooked on potato starch, stewed fruit of non-acid berries, jam.
  • Vegetable and butter is added immediately before serving.

What is forbidden

The diet should not include some foods

  • Millet and pearl barley
  • Corn, peas,
  • Mushrooms
  • Pickled and salty foods,
  • Sausages and smoked meats,
  • Fatty, spicy and spicy foods,
  • Coffee, alcohol, sweet soda,
  • Canned food and preserves.

Important! Subject to all the rules of eating, the patient's condition improves markedly.

Approximate diet

  • Morning. Boiled and mashed rice porridge with diluted milk. Dried white bread, tea.
  • Snack. Omelet, banana.
  • Day. Chicken soup with vermicelli, meat soufflé, dried fruit compote, white crackers.
  • Snack. Berry jelly, biscuits.
  • Evening. Boiled potato puree with butter, steam fish, tea.

Causes of Atrophic Gastritis

Patients with autoimmune metaplastic atrophic gastritis develop antibodies to parietal cells and their components (which include the intrinsic factor and proton pump N, K ATPase). Atrophic gastritis is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Some patients also develop Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid antibodies are detected in 50%; on the contrary, antibodies to parietal cells are found in 30% of patients with thyroiditis.

Lack of intrinsic factor leads to vitamin B deficiency12, which can lead to megaloblastic anemia (pernicious anemia) or neurological symptoms (subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord).

Hypochlorhydria leads to G-cell hyperplasia and an increase in the level of gastrin in the blood serum (often> 1000 pg / ml). An increase in gastrin levels in turn leads to hyperplasia of enterochromaffin-like cells, which sometimes transform into a carcinoid tumor.

In some patients, atrophic gastritis may be associated with a chronic Helicobacter pylori infection, although this relationship has not been fully elucidated. Gastrectomy and prolonged suppression of acidity by proton pump inhibitors cause a similar deficiency in the secretion of internal factor.

Zones of atrophic gastritis of the body and the bottom of the stomach can manifest as metaplasia. Patients with atrophic gastritis have a 3 times higher relative risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma.

What it is

Chronic atrophic gastritis is a precursor to a cancerous condition. With a constant inflammatory process, decreased activity of the immune system, pathological transformations of the stomach cells occur. Normally, the renewal of cells, therefore, of the mucosa of the digestive organ occurs every 6 days. An optimal level of acidity is maintained thanks to the production of hydrochloric acid, which ensures complete digestion.

In chronic atrophic gastritis, the production of hydrochloric acid decreases, the digestion process is hindered, directly the mucous cells begin to gradually transform. Subsequently, the modified cells do not produce gastric juice, but a special mucus that envelops the walls of the stomach. The substance is able to protect the gastric mucosa for some time from irritation, but does not participate in the digestion of food, which causes certain difficulties.

With a further inflammatory process, modified defective cells begin to reproduce their own kind, such a mutation leads to the formation of cancer cells, an oncological disease. The danger of the pathological process lies in the fact that it is carried out through autoimmune changes. That is, the main reason for progression is not so much in food and bad habits, but in the malfunctioning of the immune system, hormonal imbalance, impaired functioning of the central nervous system.

What it looks like, photo

Chronic atrophic gastritis has several stages, types. It can affect parts of the stomach or the entire organ. In any case, tissue atrophy is observed, which is visible during gastroenteroscopic examination. There is a depletion of the walls, the appearance of individual scars, the blood vessels are clearly visible. Subsequently, the gastric mucosa resembles the intestines. A photo of a dangerous disease is presented below.

The main reason for the development of the disease is autoimmune transformation. First of all, poor body defense is not able to withstand the growth of pathogenic microflora, especially Helicobacter bacteria, which are the main provocateurs of any gastritis. In second place is hormonal failure, impaired functioning of the central nervous system. Stress, exhaustion, overwork, constant psycho-emotional stress significantly weaken the immune system, disrupt the work of many internal organs, systems.

An important role is played by a genetic predisposition. Perhaps even the most important. Since experts still can not establish the root cause of chronic atrophic gastritis. Altered mutated cells are not restored, are not treated. All that doctors can stop the pathological process.

The risk of developing the disease increases in the presence of constant inflammatory processes in other digestive organs - the esophagus, liver, gall bladder, small intestine.

Provoking factors are called:

  • Impaired diet,
  • Products containing GMOs, chemical additives,
  • Spicy, salty, fatty dishes,
  • Bad habits,
  • Fasting coffee
  • Binge eating,
  • Starvation,
  • Frequent nervous stress,
  • Weakened immunity
  • Bad ecology,
  • Work with chemical, toxic substances.

Another significant reason is the frequent treatment with antibiotics, the use of drugs from the group of anti-inflammatory non-steroidal or painkillers.

The initial stage of the disease proceeds imperceptibly for the person himself, causing short-term discomfort in the stomach. As the disease progresses and under the influence of irritating factors, painful sensations appear that are not much different from ordinary gastritis:

  • Nausea,
  • Heaviness in the stomach after eating,
  • Heartburn,
  • Belching air, sour, bitter,
  • Plaque on the tongue
  • Bad taste
  • Rumbling in the stomach
  • Bloating, flatulence,
  • Changing the shape of the tongue due to smoothing of the papillae,
  • Violation of the stool.

With chronic atrophic gastritis, pain in the epigastric region does not occur, however, as the disease progresses, unpleasant symptoms that are not directly associated with the stomach increase:

  • Weakness,
  • Fatigue,
  • Dizziness,
  • Headache,
  • Fainting,
  • Lowering blood pressure
  • Sleep disturbance,
  • Nervousness,
  • Tearfulness
  • Weight loss,
  • Brittle nails
  • Hair loss,
  • Dry skin
  • Feeling of fear,
  • Nightmares
  • Thoughts of suicide.

At the last stage of the disease, a person may fall into a coma or cardiac arrest occurs.

With a pathological change in the gastric mucosa, digestion and the absorption process of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals are disturbed. There is a decrease in hemoglobin level, fragility of blood vessels, vitamin deficiency, dermatitis, eczema, and other negative changes.

Types and stages

Several types of chronic atrophic gastritis are distinguished based on the area, depth of tissue damage, and cell transformation rate.

  • Subatrophic. The initial stage of the disease, with insignificant signs of atrophy of the mucous membrane of the digestive organ. It has a mild symptomatology, practically does not differ from ordinary gastritis, and can be completely asymptomatic.
  • Focal. There is a pathological change in only some parts of the stomach. Often develops with increased acidity, focal lesion due to a sufficient amount of hydrochloric acid, which inhibits the transformation of cells. It also develops with low acidity, as a result of improper therapy or its absence at the initial stage of the disease.
  • Autoimmune. The most complex form of chronic atrophic gastritis. The reason is a genetic predisposition, thyroid disease, anemia, autoimmune disorders. It is quite difficult to prevent or stop the pathological process. To restore the body's functions, it is necessary to strengthen the immune system, normalize the hormonal background, and correct the functioning of the central nervous system. This task is practically impossible for physicians, since the mechanism of autoimmune processes is unknown.
  • Multifocal. The last stage of the disease that precedes the development of stomach cancer. The mucosa atrophies in the deep tissues, the acidity is reduced to zero, the cells do not ensure the normal functioning of the digestive system. Outwardly, the stomach becomes like an intestine, the purpose of which is to take already digested food. Mutated cells cannot be restored; the prognosis of treatment is not always favorable.

Each stage of the disease, the species is diagnosed with a special examination. It is impossible to independently determine the type of gastritis by external symptoms.

Folk remedies

One of the main objectives of therapy is to strengthen the protective functions of the body, strengthen the immune system. In the case of chronic atrophic gastritis, hormonal preparations are used, immunostimulants are inappropriate. For these purposes, vitamin complexes, probiotics, vegetables, fruits, berries, nuts, as well as folk remedies are recommended.

In addition, medicines prepared according to the recipes of traditional healers help to relieve inflammation, envelop the walls of the stomach, protect against further irritation, stimulate the production of gastric juice.

  • Calamus root. At the first alarming signs, it is recommended to prepare a tincture of calamus root. Grind 15 g of raw materials, pour 1 liter of cognac, add a tablespoon of honey. Pour into a container of dark glass, insist a month, periodically shake. Take 1 teaspoon twice a day before meals.
  • Herbal harvest. Plantain, St. John's wort, yarrow, degel, peppermint, chamomile, caraway seeds, and yarrow are mixed in equal proportions. Pour 1 teaspoon of the mixture with a glass of boiled water, leave for 10 minutes. Drink 20 minutes before meals.
  • Blueberries Fresh berry helps restore microflora, destroys Helicobacter bacteria. Saturates the body with useful substances, vitamins, strengthens the immune system, improves digestion. Blueberries are ground with sugar, eat on an empty stomach 1 teaspoon three times a day.
  • Banana. The fruit envelops the walls of the stomach, has a beneficial effect on the digestion process. It is recommended to eat a banana for breakfast or dinner.
  • The juice. In chronic atrophic gastritis, it is recommended to prepare a mixture of cabbage juice, potatoes, beets, carrots. You can combine them with each other in different variations. It is important that the product is fresh. Each ingredient should be 50 ml, add 100 ml of cold boiled water. Drink on an empty stomach 50-100 ml 2 times a day.
  • Rosehip broth. The tool has a beneficial effect on the work of the pancreas, promotes the production of gastric juice, strengthens the immune system, saturates the body with useful substances, vitamins. Berries are thrown into water, boiled for 10 minutes, insist for half an hour. They drink in a warm form, it is allowed to add honey. It is recommended to take a useful medicine between meals of 50-100 ml.
  • Flax seeds. Assign with any form of gastritis. It has enveloping properties, destroys pathogenic microflora, stops inflammatory processes. Seeds are poured with water, boiled for 5 minutes. Take 1 tbsp. spoon before each meal.

The list of folk remedies can be continued, but it should be understood that this is one of the important points that must be followed in order to achieve recovery, to alleviate the condition.

People with a chronic disease of the stomach need to adhere to a diet constantly. Proper nutrition, mode accelerate the healing process, resist relapses, stop pathological processes.

Fundamental rules:

  • Eat often, in small portions - up to 6 times a day.
  • Do not pass, do not starve.
  • Food should be at a comfortable temperature - warm.
  • Refuse coffee, strong tea, alcohol, smoking.
  • Do not eat foods containing GMOs, flavorings, flavor enhancers.
  • Carbonated drinks are prohibited.
  • Dishes should be boiled, steamed, stewed.
  • It is forbidden spicy, salty, fatty, sweets with lots of cream.
  • Chew food thoroughly.
  • Dinner should be 2 hours before bedtime.

In chronic atrophic gastritis, it is allowed:

  • Buckwheat porridge, rice, oatmeal,
  • Mashed vegetables
  • Meat, low-fat fish,
  • Eggs
  • Fruits, berries,
  • Dairy products,
  • Honey,
  • Green tea,
  • Non-carbonated mineral water.

During an exacerbation, they adhere to a strict diet, on the first day it is recommended only to drink non-carbonated mineral water. From the second day, they start to use porridge, soup, vegetable puree, dairy products, eggs. Meat, fish are allowed to eat from about the 4th day of active therapy.

Clinical recommendations

The conditions conducive to the appearance of chronic atrophic gastritis have not been fully studied, and therefore there is no effective treatment regimen. Doctors direct all efforts to stop the pathological process, but this is not always possible. In general, doctors recommend:

  • Do not overeat, do not starve,
  • Do not abuse alcohol
  • Do not smoke,
  • Monitor the state of the nervous system, hormonal balance,
  • Do not overwork
  • Eat right,
  • Timely seek help from specialists, undergo diagnostics.

Timely initiated treatment prevents the progression of the disease.

Dear readers, your opinion is very important to us - therefore, we will be glad if you share in the comments what you think about chronic gastritis. It will also be useful to other users of the site.

“I am 28 years old, last week I was diagnosed with autoimmune chronic gastritis. In parallel, gallbladder inflammation was diagnosed. The doctor did not really explain anything, prescribed a treatment for the gall bladder, for gastritis, in general, no medications, only a diet. He said that the disease is not treated. I began to rummage through the Internet, I was horrified by the possible consequences. Two of my grandmothers died of uterine cancer. There is a genetic addiction, as I understand it. It is strange that such a sore is more characteristic of older people, I am just starting to live. I don’t imagine how to behave further. I’m sure I’ll consult with a specialist, but already different. ”

“With a diagnosis of chronic atrophic gastritis, people live quite normally and for a long time. It is enough to follow a diet, try to avoid stress, undergo an examination once a year. Be sure to drink vitamins, a good remedy for protecting the mucous membrane Motilak "

Symptoms and diagnosis of atrophic gastritis

The initial stages of the disease are almost asymptomatic. Further, the course of the disease is similar to the course of ordinary gastritis.

We list the signs of atrophic gastritis and how to treat it:

  • There are pains in the stomach associated with eating.
  • After eating, a feeling of heaviness and overflow is noted.
  • The patient is tormented by belching, with atrophic gastritis of the antrum, it is acidic or rotten.
  • Swollen belly.
  • Constant nausea, sometimes vomiting, bringing a feeling of relief.
  • Symptoms of atrophic gastritis are bad breath and a foreign taste.
  • Appetite problems.
  • Flatulence and gurgling in the stomach.
  • Weight loss.
  • Stool disorder - diarrhea or constipation.
  • Avitaminosis. Lack of B vitamins associated with malabsorption.

How to diagnose atrophic gastritis, symptoms and treatment in women and men?

A diagnosis can only be made on the basis of instrumental studies such as:

  • Fibrogastroduodenum. On the camera screen, the doctor notes the thinning of the mucous layer, its pallor or gray color, smoothing of physiological folds, proliferation of the vascular network, the presence of foci of pathological changes in the glandular epithelium. During the procedure, a biopsy of the tissues of the mucous membrane is taken to exclude the oncological process.
  • Ultrasound diagnostics. There is a narrowing of the size of the stomach.
  • Functional assessment. According to objective data, the patient determines the change in the pH level of gastric juice, as well as enzymatic insufficiency.

The main methods of treatment

Conservative treatment of atrophic gastritis includes:

  • drug treatment
  • diet therapy
  • using the best methods of traditional medicine,
  • special measures to restore the gastric mucosa,
  • refusal of bad habits, adherence to diet,
  • spa treatment in health resorts of the corresponding profile.

Do not think that all patients with atrophic gastritis are doomed to cancer of the stomach. The body has serious defense mechanisms that prevent the growth of cancer cells. In addition, adequate treatment of gastritis of the stomach and the implementation of the doctor's instructions remove the threat of further cell degeneration.

Drug therapy

How to treat atrophic gastritis of the stomach? For the treatment of atrophic gastritis, several groups of drugs are used, which are selected on the basis of diagnostic studies, taking into account the stage and form of the disease, as well as the individual characteristics of the patient:

  • Antibiotic therapy. The goal is the destruction of extraneous bacterial flora, which provokes the destruction of the mucous membrane. For this, antibiotics of the penicillin group are used - Clarithromycin, Metronidazole. Treatment is carried out until the Helicobacter bacteria are completely eliminated in the sample.
  • Proton pump inhibitor - Omeprozole, Omez, Lansoprozole. Drugs that block the production of hydrochloric acid in the stomach with atrophic gastritis are used in combination with antibiotics. The course of treatment coincides with the duration of taking antibiotics.
  • Gastroprotectors. These include - De Nol, Solcoseryl. Their action is aimed at protecting and healing the damaged gastric mucosa, improving the microcirculation of blood in the walls of the organ.
  • Tonic drugs - Befungin, Almagel. They improve metabolic processes in the cells of the glandular epithelium, regulate their metabolism, and relieve pain after eating.
  • Vitamin and enzyme preparations - Maalox, Mezim-forte. They increase the body's resistance to adverse factors, normalize the digestion process.

In the course of treatment, the attending physician can introduce drugs to eliminate alarming symptoms.

Diet for atrophic gastritis

During the height of the disease, you must adhere to a diet. Food in its structure and quality should not injure the walls of the stomach, have a neutral environment and room temperature. You can eat fractionally - 5 times a day in small portions. Daily calories should be 2500 kcal.

The basis of the diet table, as a rule, are:

  • Mashed soups on vegetable and low-fat meat broth.
  • Protein products - lean meat and fish, boiled or steamed. It is better to chop meat fibers.
  • Porridge cooked on the water - semolina, rice, oatmeal.
  • Steamed omelets and boiled eggs.
  • Baked apples and pears.
  • White crackers.
  • Sour-milk products - sour cream, kefir, natural yogurt, cottage cheese, low-fat and mild cheese.
  • Jelly from berries, milk mousse and souffle, honey, marmalade.

Drinking regimen must be observed. The daily volume of fluid should be 1.5 - 2 liters. It is recommended to use a rosehip broth, herbal teas, weak black and green tea.

With the disease, a complete ban on alcoholic beverages is introduced, you can not eat pickles, fried, spicy and spicy foods.

Mucosal restoration

How to restore the gastric mucosa? Restoring the mucous membrane with atrophic gastritis to normal is a very difficult task. This is possible if the disease was detected in the early stages of development. Rather, it is about stopping destructive processes in the mucosa and supporting the functioning of normal cells.

Drug recovery. For this, preparations based on prostaglandin E are used:

  • Misoprostol is a hepaprotector that has protective properties, helps to normalize blood microcirculation in the walls of the stomach, accelerates the healing of damaged tissues of the stomach, and stimulates the normal reduction of smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Cytotec is a misoprostol-based drug. It is used to protect the mucosa from adverse factors, eliminates ulcerative processes, and enhances the secretory function of normal cells of the glandular epithelium.

Of the medications, antihypoxants and antioxidants are often prescribed, such as:

  • Actovegin. It is used to improve metabolism and speedy regeneration of glandular epithelial cells. Thanks to the action of the drug, the flow of blood and nutrients to the damaged areas of the mucosa improves.
  • Solcoseryl accelerates the process of cell regeneration. The healing effect is manifested in re-epithelialization of tissues after the inflammatory process.
  • Cymede. It consists of copper, zinc, a casein protein hydrolyzer and extract from sea buckthorn berries. Not only tissue of the glandular epithelium is treated, but also the connective tissue of the walls of the stomach, preventing the further development of atrophic processes.

Folk remedies are used in the complex restoration of damaged tissues of the gastric mucosa. The use of these funds is best discussed with the doctor, since each case of atrophic gastritis treatment is individual. Most commonly used:

  • Sea buckthorn oil, which envelops the walls of the stomach, providing protection from adverse factors, has a strong antimicrobial effect, promotes tissue regeneration.
  • Aloe juice with honey. Aloe juice has long been known for its wound healing and stimulating effect.
  • Honey improves the taste of the product and creates a protective film on the walls of the stomach.

To restore the mucous membrane with atrophic gastritis of the stomach is difficult, but possible. It is only necessary to make efforts and be consistent in the treatment.

Symptoms of atrophic gastritis

Atrophic gastritis usually begins asymptomatically. Initially, atrophy (thinning) of the mucosa affects only the bottom and body of the stomach (upper and middle parts), then spreads to its entire surface.

At this stage, symptoms of atrophic gastritis usually appear, combined into several syndromes (stable symptom complexes with a single development).

  • Anemic syndrome (a decrease in blood levels of hemoglobin, a special substance of red blood cells (red blood cells) that carries oxygen).
    • Causes of anemic syndrome. Deficiency:
      • Vitamin B12 - develops due to a violation of the absorption of vitamin B12 due to a decrease in the production of Castle's internal factor (a special substance normally produced by the stomach that ensures the absorption of vitamin B12 from food),
      • iron - develops due to impaired absorption of iron (since with a deficiency of hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach, trivalent (oxidized) iron of food cannot be restored to well absorbed divalent (unoxidized) iron),
      • folic acid (vitamin B9) - develops due to violations of the content of normal microorganisms in the intestine, which ensure the formation and absorption of folic acid.
    • Signs of anemic syndrome:
      • increasing general weakness, in some cases pronounced, interfering with the normal activity of the patient,
      • fatigue,
      • drowsiness,
      • pallor,
      • constant pain and burning in the mouth and tongue,
      • symmetrical paresthesias (sensory disturbances) in the legs and arms.
  • Dispepsic syndrome (digestive disorders).
    • A feeling of heaviness, less often a burning sensation in the upper abdomen, lasting for hours.
    • Pain in the upper abdomen - is much less common than heaviness. The pain is prolonged, aching, aggravated after eating, in some cases, decreasing after vomiting. Its occurrence is associated with damage to the mucous membrane (internal) of the stomach and with stretching of its walls by gastric contents.
    • Heartburn - pain or heaviness, burning behind the sternum that occurs when the acidic contents of the stomach are thrown into the esophagus.
    • Belching - a sudden release of gas from the stomach through the mouth.
    • Nausea, accompanied by general malaise and discomfort in various parts of the abdomen.
    • Spitting up - throwing a small amount of gastric contents into the throat or oral cavity.
    • Vomiting Vomit consists of food eaten mixed with mucus and bile.
    • Diarrhea (diarrhea) is a frequent loose stool.
    • Decreased appetite.
    • Salivation - excessive secretion of saliva.
    • Changes in the tongue - the appearance of a grayish-white plaque and tooth prints.
    • Cocosmia (bad breath).
    • Bad taste in the mouth, especially in the morning.

Depending on the the reasonsatrophy (death) of the gastric mucosa emit 2 forms of gastritis.

  • Atrophic gastritis associated withHelicobacter pylori infection (Helicobacter is a special spiral-shaped microorganism that penetrates the gastric mucosa and causes chronic superficial gastritis (inflammation of the surface layer of the gastric mucosa)). Over time, such gastritis is converted to atrophic. This gastritis is called atrophic multifocal in the presence of multiple sites of atrophy. It occurs in every 9 out of 10 patients with atrophic gastritis.
  • Atrophic autoimmune gastritis. It develops with the formation of antibodies (body proteins that selectively damage certain cells) to the parietal (parietal) cells of the fundus of the stomach (the bottom of the stomach is its upper part). It occurs in every tenth patient with atrophic gastritis.

PCauses of atrophy of the gastric mucosa:

  • infection Helicobacter pylori (helicobacter a special spiral-shaped microorganism that penetrates the gastric mucosa and causes chronic superficial gastritis (inflammation of the surface layer of the gastric mucosa). Over time, such gastritis is converted to atrophic. Helicobacter pylori causes damage to the gastric mucosa in two ways: direct damage and increased production of hydrochloric acid. With the death of a large number of stomach cells, their restoration becomes impossible,
  • the formation of antibodies (body proteins that selectively damage certain cells) to the parietal (parietal) cells of the fundus of the stomach (the bottom of the stomach is its upper part).

Healthy people have strong resistance to damage to the gastric mucosa. It is even higher than the skin. Under the influence of risk factors, this stability is reduced.

Predisposing factors include:

  • neuropsychic overwork,
  • physical overwork
  • lack of good rest,
  • occupational hazards
  • hereditary (transmitted from parents to children) features of the body,
  • past illnesses.

A gastroenterologist will help with the treatment of the disease

Atrophic gastritis treatment

Diet therapy.

  • With an exacerbation of the disease, diet No. 1 is prescribed - mechanically, thermally and chemically sparing:
    • meals 5-6 times a day in small portions,
    • the food uses mashed mucous soups, mashed potatoes, low-fat broths, crackers, jelly, cereals.
  • With a decrease in signs of inflammation, dietary recommendations become less stringent, diet No. 2 is prescribed - mechanically sparing, while preserving chemical irritants:
    • the exception of spicy, fatty, fried, smoked food, canned food, carbonated drinks,
    • food should be mashed, steamed, boiled or stewed. Fresh fruits and vegetables are excluded. Of fruits, you can only bananas,
    • food should be warm - 40-50 ° C. Cold and hot food is excluded,
    • the volume of fluid consumed should be at least 1.5 liters per day,
    • any products must be chewed thoroughly,
    • You should not allow overeating and rushing, having a snack on the go and eating dry food,
    • alcohol and smoking are excluded.

Conservative (non-surgical) treatment. At the stage of stabilization of the process, in the absence of symptoms, patients do not need treatment.

  • Etiotropic therapyaimed at eliminating the causes of atrophic gastritis.
    • If the cause of the disease is an infection Helicobacter pylori (Helicobacter is a special spiral microorganism), eradication therapy (destruction of the microorganism) is prescribed:
      • antibiotics (antimicrobial) drugs. Usually a combination of two or three antibiotics is used,
      • proton pump inhibitors (a group of drugs that reduce the secretion of gastric juice,
      • bismuth tripotassium dicitrate - the drug forms a protective layer at the site of the lesion, which prevents the already damaged mucous membrane from corroding stomach acid. The drug accelerates the scarring of damaged tissues and destroys Helicobacter pylori.
    • If the cause of the disease is the production of antibodies (special body proteins that selectively damage cells) to the cells of the gastric mucosa, then treatment with glucocorticoids (synthetic analogues of the hormones of the adrenal cortex) is prescribed only in the presence of vitamin B12 deficiency.
  • Pathogenetic therapy aimed at the mechanisms of the development of the disease.
    • Substitution therapy - the introduction of the missing substances into the body. Includes:
      • hydrochloric acid preparations,
      • enzymes (compounds that selectively break down certain nutrients) of gastric juice,
      • intramuscular administration of vitamin B12 with its deciphering.
    • Means that stimulate the secretion of hydrochloric acid:
      • mineral waters with medium and high salt content,
      • rosehip broth, as well as lemon, cabbage, tomato juices diluted with boiled water,
      • fees for medicinal herbs (plantain, St. John's wort, wormwood, thyme),
      • citric and succinic acid.
    • Gastroprotectors are agents that affect the nutrition and restoration of the gastric mucosa.
    • Enveloping and astringent agents with anti-inflammatory effect. These are bismuth and aluminum preparations.
    • Prokinetics - drugs that promote the normal promotion of the contents of the digestive tract.
    • Blockers of central and peripheral dopamine receptors (drugs with an analgesic effect) are prescribed for severe pain and dyspeptic phenomena (digestive disorders).

Surgerywith atrophic gastritis is not carried out. With the development of cancer (a malignant tumor - a tumor growing with damage to the surrounding tissues) of the stomach, surgical treatment is possible in the form of a gastrectomy (removal of the stomach), less often resection (removal of part) of the stomach.

Physiotherapeutic treatment reduces the clinical manifestations of gastritis, stimulates secretion and normalizes motor function of the stomach, improves its blood supply. The following physiotherapeutic methods are used.

  • Electrophoresis (the introduction of drugs using electric current directly into the affected area)
  • Thermal procedures:
    • warmers on the upper abdomen,
    • applications (application) of warming agents on the upper abdomen.
  • Electrotherapy (using the therapeutic effects of electric current - anti-inflammatory, analgesic, increasing the production of gastric juice, etc.).
  • Magnetotherapy (using the therapeutic effects of magnets - anesthetizing, improving blood flow and healing of injuries, etc.).

Spa treatment atrophic gastritis is used in the period without exacerbation. If possible, it can be carried out once a year in balneological sanatoriums (where treatment with mineral waters is carried out).

Prevention of atrophic gastritis

  • Timely, full treatment of infection caused by Helicobacterpylori (Helicobacter is a special spiral-shaped bacterium).
  • Quitting alcohol and smoking.
  • Rational and balanced nutrition:
    • frequent meals in small portions,
    • refusal of spicy, fatty, fried foods, carbonated drinks,
    • refusal of snacks “on the go”,
    • refusal to eat dry food,
    • refusing too hot food.
  • Food hygiene (washing hands before eating, using individual dishes) to prevent infection Helicobacter pylori.

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