The peculiarity of the parasitic lower worms (worms) is that in order to survive even in adverse conditions, they developed such forms and body structure that with the greatest efficiency ensures their development and reproduction. The main sign of all worms is the strong flatness of their body, but helminths vary greatly in size.
Worms are classified according to various signs. In appearance, they are divided into:
- flat tapeworms (cestodes),
- flatworms (flukes),
- roundworms (nematodes).
According to the transmission method, worms are divided into the following groups:
- transmitted from animals (biohelminths),
- infection from an already infected person,
- infection through intermediate development in the soil.
At the same time, it will not be possible to classify depending on what size worms a person has. The fact is that parasites of even one species have completely different sizes. Indicative in this regard are cestodes. In the initial stage of development, they consist of a head and neck, which is a growth zone, and the size of these helminths is only a few millimeters. The number of segments can reach two thousand, and the length of the largest cestode of bovine tapeworm can reach twenty or more meters.
At the same time, the same tapeworm, but dwarf, is only 1 cm long, in rare cases reaching 3 cm in length. In their structure, they are no different from other much larger tapeworms, but the maximum number of segments in the mature stage is not more than two hundred. There are also lower worms that are parasitic in the human body, which are so small in size that they are called microscopic. However, still the most common are worms in humans, the sizes of which vary within one centimeter.
Species of parasites
The types of helminths vary depending on the life cycle:
- Biohelminths. From insects, animals, within which they mature, eggs and larvae of worms get to humans.
- Geohelminthes. Infection occurs by contact with a sick person. Eggs, larvae of worms ripen in the soil.
The classification of helminths divides them into round and ribbon. The former often settle in the small and large intestines, causing many problems with their presence. Flat helminths look like long thin worms, due to the absence of the intestinal tube feeding through their own cover.
In this class, the most numerous varieties of helminths are represented - more than twenty thousand. Many parasitize in the human body. They are distinguished by extraordinary endurance, ability to survive even being in formalin solution for a long time. A feature is the rapid development, reproduction, the presence of a simple digestive system, high mobility. The most common helminth species that are dangerous to humans are roundworms, whipworms, pinworms. They are localized in the intestines and other organs, causing various pathologies, including blood diseases.
White worms in shape resemble sticks with pointed tips. The size of the males does not exceed 0.5 cm, the females do not exceed 0.1 cm. After 5 hours from the moment of pinworm penetration into the human body, unpleasant symptoms occur. Worms hatch from the laid eggs in the skin folds of the anus, moving deeper into the intestine. Irritating its walls, cause severe itching, indigestion, nausea. Most often affect young children who are not sufficiently hygienic. A person can be infected in various ways, including through the dirty hands of the patient. Pinworm light eggs can even be in the air. The life of a helminth is about six months.
Among all types of round worms, they are particularly large in size, the length of some individuals reaches 40 cm. The entire worm has a white color with a reddish tint, the end of the body is bent and resembles a hook. Helminth eggs are found in the small intestine, where larvae hatch from them, which enter with blood into all organs and systems that affect the heart muscle, brain, skin, eyes. Through the oral cavity, they again penetrate the intestines. Having become an adult, the parasite lays several hundred thousand eggs per day. Roundworms can form huge tangles inside the body. A person infected with worms experiences pain in the abdomen, accompanied by nausea, vomiting. The patient quickly gets tired. Symptoms are expressed in different ways - from mild ailment to serious manifestations. It depends on the individual reaction of the body. Parasites can live inside a person for two years.
The name of this helminth is due to a thin body resembling a hair up to 5.5 mm long. From the soil in various ways, eggs penetrate the human body. The parasite settles in the cecum, where, using the sharp end, it sucks out blood and other fluids through the intestinal mucosa. Signs of the disease practically do not differ from infection with other types of parasites. Specific manifestations include sensations resembling appendicitis, the formation of polyps, stomach ulcers. Helminth life expectancy is from 3 to 4 years.
A yellow round worm that looks like roundworm. Length rarely exceeds 10 centimeters. A person becomes infected with worms from dogs, cats, and other animals. The female toxocara is able to lay up to 250 thousand eggs per day. The larvae emerging from them spread through the blood through the body, appearing in the heart, lungs, liver, eyes. The parasite is able to live inside a person up to 10 years.
Wild and domestic animals are often carriers of this type of roundworm. Infection occurs when eating meat that has not undergone the necessary heat treatment. After a few days, Trichinella larvae ripen inside the duodenum, after which it penetrates with blood to different parts of the body. It affects mainly the respiratory system, cardiovascular, nervous system. In severe cases, these types of worms can be fatal.
The simplest organisms whose vitality is surprising. They are active in all weather conditions, regardless of the time of year. They are found mainly on the surface of vegetables, fruits, in the ground. You can get infected by drinking unboiled water, dirty hands, through household items, dishes. A characteristic sign of infection with giardia is a reddish rash on the surface of the skin, itching, prolonged diarrhea. The smallest of all parasites, lamblia cause serious harm to the human body. Children especially suffer from them. Attaching flagella to the walls of the intestine, the parasite sucks a significant part of the nutrients.
The body of representatives of this class of worms is flat, ribbon-shaped, suckers are located at both ends. With the help of some, worms are attached to the surface of any organs, vessels, while others serve as the mouth opening. Development occurs with the participation of an intermediate host. Helminths, the species of which are flukes, band parasites, belong to the group of hermaphrodites, have a reduced intestine. Respiratory, circulatory system are absent.
Among all types of worms found in humans, it is distinguished by its size, reaching up to 40 meters. The body, resembling a tape, includes many segments, the helminth receives nutrition thanks to its entire surface. It colonizes the small intestine, once inside the body with the meat of cattle infected with larvae. Throughout its life, the worm forms new segments in which eggs mature, then secreted into the environment. The life of an individual bovine tapeworm can last from 5 to 10 years. A person experiences severe pain in the abdomen, dizziness, fainting, and insomnia.
Especially dangerous for humans helminth, the infection of which is possible by eating poorly processed pork meat. The structure of the pork tapeworm is similar to bullish, differing in shorter length - no more than 5 meters. Once larvae reach a person, they settle in the small intestine. The disease is called teniosis. Infection with eggs (cysticercosis) leads to the fact that the larvae, moving inside the body, settle in any organ, affecting the muscles, heart, brain. Having a compressive effect on the tissues, they cause inflammatory processes. Pork tapeworm can live 30 years.
Biohelminth, which is a long (up to 10 meters), wide ribbon. The nursery of larvae is freshwater fish. Worms get to a person with insufficient heat treatment of the product. The worm is able to parasitize in the body for decades, while releasing eggs into the environment. A person infected with worms suffers from constant severe pain in the lower abdomen, the development of anemia.
Flat helminth up to 5 meters long. It mainly affects the liver, which is why it acquired such a name. The eggs of the parasite from water, soil enter the body of freshwater fish, forming larvae there. Human consumption of infected and poorly processed meat of bream, crucian carp, roach leads to the development of opisthorchiasis. In the chronic stage, this disease often resembles pancreatitis or gastritis, which makes diagnosis difficult. In addition to fever, loss of appetite, a person experiences severe pain in the right side, biliary colic.
A small worm consisting of several segments. Helminths live in organisms of foxes, wolves. Infection with worms occurs when eating meat from sick animals, from dogs. The risk group includes shepherds, hunters. An adult parasite can exist in the intestines for many years. Larvae enter the bloodstream to all organs where they form cysts, reaching up to 10 cm in diameter. The patient experiences symptoms similar to liver diseases. One of the characteristic symptoms of echinococcus infection is yellowness of the skin.
Signs of helminthic infestation
Depending on the pathogens and their localization, there are different types of helminthiases. Everyone is to some extent dangerous to human health.
Parasitizing in the intestines, helminths take a significant part of the beneficial nutrients. Some of them, in addition, affect vital organs - the brain, lungs, heart, blood vessels, causing serious harm to the body.
Helminthic invasion manifests itself in different ways, symptoms arise from the organs where the greatest localization of parasites is observed. The most common are the following:
- Stool disorders (diarrhea, diarrhea, constipation).
- Itching in the anus, which the patient can not tolerate.
- Sleep disturbances.
- Skin rash, allergic reactions.
- Pain in the muscles, joints.
- Yellowness of the skin, mucous membranes.
- Impaired appetite.
- A sharp change (decrease, increase) in weight.
- Pain in the abdomen.
Helminthiasis can not declare itself for a long time, manifesting itself in the case of a cold, with stress, overwork. Often the worms that have settled in the human body cause many serious diseases that occur with severe complications.
No matter what worms a person is infected with, modern medications can quickly and effectively get rid of all helminths. In humans, after treatment for parasites, immunity is maintained for a long time. But it is best to prevent infection by following simple rules: thoroughly rinse fruits and vegetables before eating, exclude the use of fish and meat products that have not undergone the necessary heat treatment, and observe personal hygiene.
1 cm worms
Worms of 1 cm are most often found among round helminths. First of all, we are talking about pinworms, small nematodes of white color. The males are small, up to 3 mm, but the females are much larger and reach a length of 9-12 mm. They parasitize in the small intestine (lower section). Pinworms during a night's sleep crawl out of the anus and lay eggs. Infection occurs when they spread through bedding, transfer to household items. Sources of helminthic invasion are contacts with infected people or animals, or non-observance of personal hygiene rules.
Another helminth, hookworm, reaching a maximum length of 1.5 centimeters, is very common. The extremely rarely detected type of parasites is their duodenum, the duodenum, biting its walls with sharp teeth, hookworm larvae penetrate human skin from infected soil and penetrate the intestine with a blood stream.
Helminthic infestation under the name opisthorchiasis is caused by a parasite up to 13 mm long, hepatica. Parasitizing in the body, they affect:
- bile ducts
- gall bladder
Among flukes, there are also parasites, 1 cm long - ribbon, which lives in crayfish, freshwater mollusks, and pork. The body of the parasite covered with reddish-brown spikes is ovoid in shape. When infection occurs:
- cough in the morning with a little sputum,
- shortness of breath, headaches,
- noises, wheezing in the lungs.
Vomiting, visual impairment is also possible. The disease can often be re-infected. Larvae can parasitize in the lungs, muscles, and diaphragm for a long time. In general, the danger of the effects of helminth infections does not depend on size, but requires immediate treatment.
Overview of species and their classification
It is easy to get infected with worms, it is enough to stop observing the rules of hygiene and the opportunity for worms to penetrate the desired organ will open. The most common types of worms in humans are: lamblia, trichinella, pinworms, whipworm, heterogeneous tapeworm, roundworms and flukes, as well as echinococcus. It is important to understand which species the inhabitants of the body belong to in order to find an effective treatment. The classification of various helminths is carried out on the basis of information about the preferred place for their localization: intestinal and extraintestinal. By external signs, they are divided into varieties: tapeworms, roundworms, flukes.
Survive in difficult conditions. Worms quickly move through the body, and also multiply rapidly. For this reason, they soon become many. The main difference from all varieties is the primitive life cycle and the simple structure of the body: the oral apparatus is connected to the anus by a tube. Development is fast too.
This group of worms includes whipworm, pinworms, giardia, roundworm, trichinella.
Thinking about what kind of worms a person has, one should know that representatives of this species are more common than others. Distinctive features: white body color, short length, and the female is superior to the male in this parameter (10 mm versus 5 mm males). The body is pointed closer to the ends. Worms quickly spread through the digestive tract - for this they need 5-6 hours.
The female lays offspring on the anus, in the folds of the skin. The infected person feels an itch in this area. Other symptoms of pinworms: disruption of the digestive system (loose stools, nausea), irritability.
When looking for an answer to the question, what kind of worms a person has infected, one of the first to consider these helminths. Their sizes are larger: within 15-40 mm. The development of offspring occurs when it enters the digestive system.Here the worms parasitize. Life expectancy is not longer than a year. When infected with worms, a person may feel abdominal pain, feel sick, and often vomit. The normal reaction for ascariasis is allergic manifestations, fatigue.
It is characterized by a considerable length - up to 5.5 cm (female), males are slightly smaller - up to 4.5 cm. The usual habitat is the cecum. The parasite secretes a pointed body, which allows it to easily penetrate the mucous membranes, reaching the food source (blood, tissue fluid). Symptoms of the disease: convulsions shake the entire human body, signs characteristic of appendicitis appear, a stomach ulcer develops. Where worms of this species live, neoplasms appear.
Of all species, these helminths are viviparous. All others prolong life by laying eggs. Appear on contact with poorly processed meat. They live in the body of warm-blooded creatures: humans, animals. A characteristic feature is a high rate of development (several days). Trichinella enter various organs, which contributes to the bloodstream. The first symptoms of worms: diarrhea, a feeling of nausea. Muscle aches (worms often live here), skin rash, swelling, fever.
These are microscopic helminths, on the body of which processes are located. They allow parasites to attach to the mucous membranes of organs, in particular the intestines. The source of infection with worms: unwashed fruits and hands, particles of earth and sand, untreated water, household items and children's toys. Obvious signs of infection with such worms: loose stools with a specific pungent odor, red spots on the skin, itching.
By the name you can guess that the shape of the body is flattened and resembles a ribbon. Adults are hermaphrodites. A characteristic difference is the suction cups located on the body. With their help, flatworms stick to the walls of organs in search of food (blood).
The following types of helminths belong to this group: hepatic trematode, heterotypic tapeworm, echinococcus.
The name helps to determine the location of the helminth - the liver. However, it is also found in the pancreas, gall bladder. The source of infection is fish (rudd, roach, carp, bream, crucian carp and gudgeon). The length of the parasite is significant - within 5 cm. Typical symptoms of worms: muscle sore, loss of appetite, fever, pain in the muscles, as well as on the right side.
Bovine and pork chain
This is one of the types of worms, whose representatives are known for a considerable length - 10 m. If you pay attention to the names of the worms, you can find out that certain animals are their carrier. Penetrating into the human body, worms remain in it for a long time. Pork tapeworm parasitizes in various organs, not excluding the brain. To cope with it is easier than with worms of the form of a bull tapeworm. Common symptoms of the presence of worms: headache, sleep and gastrointestinal tract disorders (nausea, heartburn), pain in the stomach, decreased hemoglobin, and the presence of worm body particles in the feces are often painful.
The source of infection with worms is domestic and wild animals: cats, wolves, dogs, foxes. Upon contact with them, it is likely to get echinococcosis (a parasitic disease characterized by the appearance of a helminth of this type). For this reason, usually the disease is diagnosed in hunters, shepherds. Common signs of worms: yellowness of the skin, loose stools, malaise.
Digestive Disorders (GIT)
Such signs occur during infection with parasites of the intestinal group. The obvious symptoms of helminthiasis:
- Violation of the stool for a long period (constipation, diarrhea)
- Sensation of nausea accompanied by vomiting
- Abdominal pain is localized in different areas: hypochondrium, navel.
Regardless of what kind of worms populated the body, the following symptoms appear:
- Temperature rise
- Dizzy and sore head
- Joint problems (frequent pain).
The more toxins released by worms, parasitizing on a person, the stronger the symptoms. These include chronic fatigue, rapid loss of strength, sleep disturbance, and also a person becomes inattentive, irritable.
Interesting video: Worms and parasites in the human body
If worms are wound up, different types provide the appearance of certain symptoms. A common sign for most helminthiases is an allergic reaction to the toxic waste products of worms. This threatens with the appearance of signs:
- Skin rash
- Allergic cough, rhinitis
- Bronchial asthma.
With a strong change in the structure and quality of hair (loss, brittleness), deterioration of the condition of nails (exfoliate) and heels (crack), you should first suspect a possible helminthiasis.
Gradually, the body becomes weaker, its protective functions (immunity) decrease.
This is the main cause of regular illnesses. Often chronic conditions develop:
- Inflammation of the female genital organs (vulvovaginitis, vaginosis)
These are not all diseases that arise against the background of a decrease in immunity. When the protective functions of the body are weakened, regular bronchitis, tracheitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, SARS, etc. are noted. The course of the disease is determined by the degree of infection with helminths: the more there are, the worse the body copes with the infection. This is influenced by the level of toxicity of worm products.
Types of Worms
In medical sources, in which you can find the answer to the question of what types of worms a person has, provide data on a huge variety of varieties. Of course, certain species are most often found. According to the classification, they can be divided into 3 main types. These are: round and tapeworms, as well as flukes.
The first in the list of types of worms in humans is to indicate roundworms. They are also known as nematodes. They got their name due to the structure of the body, because if you make a transverse section of an individual, you can see the resulting roundness. Despite the fact that in the world there are more than 20 thousand of their species, a person usually has only a few of them.
The most common roundworms include:
- Roundworm. These worms are quite large in size. In length, they can reach half a meter. Width varies between 4-5 cm. The color is usually pink, but in various cases it may be more white or red.
These helminths are localized mainly in the small intestine, but in rare cases they can also be in the bile ducts. In this case, the larvae move quite easily throughout the body through the bloodstream. Their final stop is the lungs. It is here that there are the most comfortable conditions for their ripening, because this type of parasite belongs to anaerobes. When they become more viable, they move into the intestines. Roundworms have a long lifespan, which can be 12-14 months.
Outside the human body, these worms live in soil conditions where they lay several thousand eggs daily,
- Pinworms. Most often found in children, as the cause of infection can be poorly washed hands or foods. Slightly less often they enter the body with dust particles. Their size is much smaller than that of roundworms. Males reach 3 mm in length, and females up to 13-14 mm. The color is completely white.
Their favorite habitat is the initial part of the large intestine. Eggs are laid in the anus, closer to the anus. Their life expectancy is also significantly shorter than that of roundworms, and is only a couple of months.
- Trichinella. These modest-sized worms, which reach only 4 mm in length, most often enter the living human body as part of infected meat. Larvae live in muscle tissue, mainly in the oculomotor and chewing, but adults prefer to localize in the intestines. Trichinella is a danger to humans, since without proper treatment they can be fatal.
Tapeworms are characterized by a flat body structure and a complete absence of the gastrointestinal tract. The length of individuals can reach several meters, due to which they look like a long ribbon. They prefer to live in the intestines or gastric ducts. Among them, the following types can be distinguished:
- Bull tapeworm. This is one of the largest varieties of tapeworms. The length of an individual can reach 15-20 meters. The worm sticks to the surface of the small intestine and begins to absorb the substances necessary for a person. Without proper diagnosis and treatment, he can live up to 10 years. Infection usually occurs when an infected, not thoroughly thermally treated meat is eaten,
- Dwarf tapeworm. It got its name due to its small size, which averages 4-5 mm. You can catch this choke through poorly washed vegetables, and even dirty hands,
- Wide ribbon. Another large view. Its length can be as much as 10 meters, the width, as a rule, is greater than that of other worms. Larvae enter the body with infected fish and grow to an adult in just 3.5 weeks. Lives mainly in the small intestine. Life expectancy can reach tens of years,
- Echinococcus. Small worms, the length of which, as a rule, is not more than 5 mm. Infection comes from infected animals: cats and dogs. This species differs in that individuals are not localized in the intestine, but in the lungs or liver. They are dangerous in that they can provoke the formation of cysts, which subsequently require surgical removal.
Such worms can very much harm the body, so the sooner they are detected, the better.
Flukes, like tapeworms, belong to flat parasites due to the structure of their body. They are also called liver worms, because their main habitat is the liver and bile ducts. Their main types are:
- Siberian fluke. Also known as cat fluke. It lives mainly in rivers and lakes, which means it enters the human body along with infected fish that underwent poor processing. Pets can act as a carrier. Individuals are quite small and rarely reach 12-13 mm. Inside a person can live in absolutely any organ,
- Chinese or eastern fluke. It is characterized by a transparent red hue of the body and small size, not more than 2.5 cm. It enters the human body, identical to the Siberian fluke. It can lay more than 3.5 thousand eggs daily,
- Fasciola. This is a larger flat worm, its length can be 5-7 cm. It is viable only in fresh water. In salt springs dies. A person can become infected with fasciola by drinking raw contaminated water, for example, during bathing, as well as by eating plants. The risk is especially great if they belong to aquatic or wild species.
Although hepatic flukes are small, they can be dangerous to humans. In addition to the standard symptoms, the patient may develop a fever.
The simplest organisms have existed on earth for millions of years. Today, science reads more than 14.5 thousand species. Like other parasites, their favorite habitat is soil, water in reservoirs and, of course, the human body. They can be on the surface of vegetables and fruits for some time, the use of which often becomes the cause of infection.
In the vast majority of cases, when it comes to infecting humans with protozoa, lamblia is implied. Their vitality can be envied. They withstand even the most adverse environmental conditions.
In their structure, they are distinguished by the presence of four pairs of flagella and a special disk that performs a suction function. Due to them, the Labels reliably cling to the inner surface of the intestine and begin to parasitize.
The fact that worms appeared in the human body can be understood by the vast number of signs. But most of them are of a general nature, indicating the presence of an inflammatory process. This can confuse the patient, forcing him to look for the cause in other diseases.
So, the patient may note in his own period:
- Fatigue, malaise, fatigue,
- Pallor of the skin,
- Dizziness, and sometimes headaches,
- Increased anxiety, irritability. In children, severe aggression can be seen,
- Sleep impairment. Insomnia is usually disturbing,
- Joint pain, pulling sensations in the muscles,
- Increased salivation.
The following symptoms reminiscent of an allergic reaction or diseases of the gastrointestinal tract can mislead the patient:
- Yellowness of the skin,
- Body rash
- Bouts of asthma,
- Stool disorders: constipation or diarrhea,
- Feeling nauseous as well as vomiting
- Pain in the abdomen and hypochondrium,
- Slightly elevated body temperature.
But the more characteristic symptoms for this situation, due to which people most often begin to suspect parasites, are:
- Weight loss for no apparent reason. At the same time, it’s very difficult to return the kilograms that have passed,
- Anal itching
- Bruxism. This phenomenon is expressed in gnashing of teeth during sleep.
Detecting helminths in the body is not at all simple. The standard procedure in this case is the examination of feces on an ovum. I must say that sometimes to detect worms in the feces, you may need to pass an analysis from 3 to 5 times.
How to determine certain types of worms, only a doctor knows. It is impossible to do it yourself without analysis results. Depending on the symptoms, the doctor may prescribe the following examination procedures:
- Blood test. In this case, the number of indicators such as proteins and eosinophils is analyzed,
- Analysis of scraping from the anus,
- Analysis of scraping from the vagina.
Also, in some cases, additional measures may be required. Such as:
- Sputum examination,
- The study of the composition of urine and bile,
- CT scan,
- Ultrasound procedure.
After the parasites have been identified, the doctor draws up a treatment plan.
Self-treatment of parasites is not allowed. This is due to the following factors:
- Preparations contain various active ingredients, which means they have a detrimental effect on different types of helminths,
- Some drugs can only destroy larvae of worms, but not adults,
- All medicines have some kind of side effects.
In this regard, it is necessary to select medications based on the results of diagnostic procedures.
Preparations may have the following active ingredients:
- Mebendazole. Only affects pinworms,
- Diethylcarbamazine. Medicines based on it are prescribed if there is filaria in the patient’s body,
- Levamisole. It has an extensive spectrum of action. Destroys both pinworms and roundworms, and other worms,
- Befenia hydroxy naphthoate. Effectively fights roundworm individuals,
- Albendazole It is necessary in the treatment of diseases caused by echinococcus,
- Piperazine adipate. It is used to remove roundworms and pinworms from the body.
Among the popular drugs in this segment are:
- Pirantel. This is a medication that is suitable for the destruction of ascarids, nematodes, pinworms. It can be used even in young children, starting from six months of age. The active substance penetrates into the individuals themselves, completely paralyzing them. The drug is not effective against larvae during the migration period,
- Mebendazole. It has a very wide spectrum of action. It is used against roundworms, echinococci, nematodes, trichinella and other types of parasites. Almost not absorbed into the intestines. It is forbidden to use in children under the age of 3 years, and pregnant women. It works by penetrating the worms themselves and disrupting important processes of their life,
- Levamisole. Another widely acting drug. It completely violates the energy exchange of worms. As a result, parasites are paralyzed and brought out. This happens about a day after administration.
Traditional medicine also did not stand aside in this matter. She offers various methods that may and may not always be able to completely cleanse the body of parasites, but at least in the power to inhibit their reproduction and development.
Pumpkin seeds - a proven remedy for worms
Examples of such methods are:
- Pumpkin seeds. They are taken in their pure form or made on their basis a decoction
- Seeds of watermelon. Apply similarly to pumpkin,
- Wormwood tincture,
- Tincture of alcohol and wormwood juice,
- Sandy immortelle.
It is important to pay attention to the fact that before applying alternative methods, it is worth getting approval from the attending physician and, of course, to exclude an allergic reaction to the components used.
What are worms dangerous for humans?
Worms do not just live in the human body, they are in the literal sense of the word, parasitizing, taking useful substances, and also sucking up blood. The body experiences a state of intoxication. The result of a long stay of helminths inside a person can be such negative consequences as:
- Weakened immune system,
- Violation of the gastrointestinal tract. Poor digestibility of food, the appearance of ulcers,
- Allergy development,
- Cyst formation
- The defeat of the organs in which they live.
And do not forget that some types of parasites are very, very dangerous. Ignoring their presence can lead to the worst outcome.
The vast majority of people at least once in their lives came across worms. Especially often this affects children. And this is justified, in addition to the fact that they have weaker immunity in comparison with adults, they also often ignore the rules of hygiene.
In general, methods that help reduce the risk of infection are far from complicated. They mean by themselves:
- Compliance with personal hygiene. Hands should not only be rinsed, but washed thoroughly with soap,
- Vegetables, fruits, berries must be washed with plenty of water,
- Any meat: livestock, poultry or fish, should be washed very well before cooking. Heat treatment must also be thorough. Do not take risks and cook meat with blood, if there is no confidence in its quality and safety,
- Periodic antihelminthic prophylaxis in children. It’s best to do this by consulting a doctor,
- Also, livestock and pets are subject to drug prevention. In this case, there is no difference whether they live in the courtyard of a private house or in the room itself. If a dog or cat eats raw meat, then prevention from worms should be carried out without fail.
Such procedures will help not to meet with parasites, as long as possible.
Types of helminths, their classification
In the world there are more than 300 species of parasites that belong to different classes and groups of microorganisms. In Russia, only 70 species are found, while from this figure 10 can be distinguished, which are found in the vast majority of cases.
Parasitic worms, depending on their characteristics of parasitism, can be divided into two groups - these are intestinal and tissue.
The first group chooses the human intestines as their home, and pinworms, roundworm, giardia, hookworm, whipworm, bovine tapeworm, pork tapeworm, and wide ribbon can be attributed to it.
The tissue group includes trematodes, trichinella, hepatic flukes, echinococcus and alveococcus. They can settle in any internal organ of a person, and live there for years.
Depending on the life cycle of the parasites (as well as the source of infection), they can be divided into the following varieties:
- Biohelminths - eggs and larvae of this group of parasites mature in animal organisms (cow, dog, cat) or insects (mosquito, fly). That is, a person is infected directly from them. And the transfer from one person to another is not possible.
- Geohelminths - eggs and larvae of this group of parasites mature exclusively in the soil, that is, outside the human body.
- Contact parasites - infection occurs directly from a sick person to a healthy person (through a handshake, household items, bedding, and so on).
Types of worms depending on the class are divided into the following varieties:
- Round parasites (nematodes) are of different sizes and appearance, are always heterosexual individuals. Pinworms and roundworms belong to them (as in the photo).
- Cestodes or flat (tape) helminths - are long worms, which are fed through their own cover. These include bovine and pork tapeworm (found quite often), and echinococcus (as in the photo).
- Trematodes or flukes - opisthorchiasis, schistosomiasis and some other types of parasitic microorganisms.
Tapeworms and flukes are always parasites, but the group of roundworms has more than 10,000 species, and only some of them are ways to live in the human body.
Brief description of common parasites
Pinworms, penetrating the human body, provoke a disease called enterobiosis. They look like small and round worms, white or yellowish in color, with a maximum size of one centimeter.
Penetrating into the human body, they settle in the intestines. Helminths belong to the contact form of parasites, that is, they are able to be transmitted from the patient to a healthy person. At night, the female crawls out of the intestines and lays eggs. As a result, the main symptom of this disease is an intolerable itching in the anus.
Pinworms' life cycle varies from 4 to 6 months. It is possible to get rid of them only when the last larva dies. The eggs of parasites have amazing survivability, and can adapt to any adverse conditions.
The following types are the most common parasites in the human body:
- Roundworm (ascaridosis disease).
- Toxocara (toxocariasis disease).
- Whipworm (ailment trichocephalosis).
- Trichinella (Trichinosis disease).
- Tapeworm or bull tapeworm (teniarinhoz).
- Pork tapeworm (diseases - teniosis, cysticercosis).
Medical statistics say that quite often there is also a wide ribbon, which causes a disease such as diphyllobothriasis, as well as echinococcus (echinococcosis), feline trematode (opisthorchiasis), giardia - giardiasis.
All parasites in the process of their life negatively affect the human body, while the symptoms of each disease are significantly differentiated.
It is worth noting that treatment also depends on the type of parasitic microorganism, the intensity of helminthic invasion, the number of helminths that have penetrated the human body.
The human roundworm is a large and round worm that has a bent end (similar to a hook). Sizes range from 50 cm to one meter in length, and about 6 centimeters in diameter.
The length of the males is always much less than the length of the females. As a rule, the size of the male parasite does not exceed 25 centimeters. Ascaris larvae are relatively small in size. With the intensity of helminthic invasion, roundworms are able to multiply as quickly as possible, as a result of which bundles of parasites form in the intestine.
Ascaris (as in the photo) refers to geohelminths. Eggs can get from the earth into the small intestine, where they transform over time into larvae, which, under a favorable environment, can penetrate into the circulatory system, and from there, through blood, move to all internal organs - lungs, heart, kidneys, cerebral hemispheres, skin, eyes.
If the larvae settle in the lungs, they destroy the alveoli and enter the bronchi, and then, together with the bronchial secretion, enter the oral cavity, and again end up in the intestines. Thus, secondary infection is carried out. Adults can lay a couple of thousands of eggs per day, and live in the human body for several years. Symptoms of ascariasis:
- General malaise, weakness.
- Increased nervousness.
- Increasing the temperature of the body.
- Shortness of breath, unproductive cough.
- Pain in the sternum.
Treatment of ascariasis involves a preliminary cleansing of the body, the doctor recommends taking laxatives and sorbents to help remove parasitic waste products. Anthelmintic agents are then prescribed, taking into account the age and weight of the patient, the intensity of helminthic invasion.
Treatment of roundworm is advisable with such medications as Albendazole, Nemozol, Piperazine.
Toxocara is a round parasite (as in the photo), which is yellow in color and reaches a length of up to 10 centimeters. Infection is carried out through contact with animals, in the vast majority of cases you can get infected from cats and dogs.
The female parasite is capable of secreting up to 250 thousand eggs per day. Helminth eggs penetrate in the human body through the oral cavity, then find themselves in the intestine. Their life cycle can be compared with roundworms, they are also able to enter the circulatory system, and then into various internal organs.
In the human body, the helminth larva is not able to turn into an adult, its maturation occurs exclusively in the intestines of animals. In the human body, larvae can live up to 10 years. Symptoms of toxocariasis vary significantly, it all depends on which organ the larva has settled in. The general symptoms of the disease are distinguished:
- An allergic reaction in the form of a rash, skin itching, redness of the integument.
- Shortness of breath, shortness of breath.
- Unproductive coughing attacks.
- Dry wheezing when breathing.
The acute form of the disease has more “traditional” symptoms, which include weakness and apathy, fever, fever, joint and muscle pain, headaches and dizziness.
Treatment of toxocariasis begins with etiotropic therapy, which acts directly on the causes of the disease, that is, on the parasite larvae. Further, drugs that restore the functionality of affected organs and systems are recommended.
Vlasoglav in appearance is a thin worm, the approximate length of which is from 3 to 5 centimeters, the diameter is like a human hair. It has a sharp end, through which it is fixed in the intestinal mucosa.
Helminth can penetrate into the human body from the soil, and then moves into the intestine, where larvae are already formed. As a rule, this type of parasite settles in the zone of the cecum and appendix. Able to live in the human body from 3 to 4 years.
The peculiarity of infection with this parasite is that the disease can be asymptomatic. However, there are “classic” symptoms that are most often confused with respiratory diseases - cough, fever, nausea.
Vlasoglav reduces the body's defenses, as a result of which secondary infections can join on the background of its infection, which significantly worsen the patient's condition. The following clinical symptoms are distinguished:
- Pallor of the skin.
- Weakness, nausea.
- Disruption of the digestive tract.
- Pain in the abdomen.
- In the stool, an admixture of blood is observed.
- Increased irritability, convulsive conditions.
- Headaches and dizziness.
As a rule, it is quite rare to detect a parasite at an early stage of infection. However, treatment should be comprehensive. It includes anthelmintic drugs with a narrow spectrum of action, acting exclusively on whipworms, painkillers, antispasmodics.
Trichinella is a small worm no more than 5 millimeters long. Refers to biohelminths that circulate among predatory and domestic animals. The parasite can enter the human body along with animal meat.
The Trichinella female appears in the human small intestine, where the reproduction process is carried out, and new larvae appear. These larvae enter the circulatory system, and with the flow of blood can spread throughout the human body. The “favorite” locally trichinella is the skeletal muscle, where it can live up to 5 years. The first symptoms are observed in the patient on the 8-10th day of infection:
- Pain in the abdomen.
- Regular nausea.
- Vomiting, disruption of the digestive tract.
- Loss of appetite.
After the larvae travel to travel through the body, the above symptoms become more pronounced, while joint and muscle pain, an allergic reaction (urticaria, itching, rash) are additionally observed. If you do not start treatment on time, then the disease gives complications to the cardiovascular system, central nervous system and respiratory organs.
Treatment includes anthelmintic drugs, as well as symptomatic therapy, which fights against allergic manifestations. At high temperatures, antipyretic drugs are recommended. As a rule, therapy is carried out in stationary conditions.
Bull and pork tapeworm
Bull tapeworm is capable of reaching thirty meters in size, it has a small head, and thousands of segments are located on the body. There are 6 hooks on the head of the parasite. Helminth larvae develop in cattle. It is able to penetrate the human body with poorly heat-treated raw meat.
Throughout its entire life cycle, it resides in the small intestine, where it forms new segments. After they form, and eggs are made from them. In each segment, up to 100 thousand eggs are observed.
The parasite feeds on the entire surface of its body, can live in the human body until a 10-year period. The general symptoms of the disease are distinguished:
- Systematic pain in the abdomen.
- Loss of appetite, vomiting.
- Weight loss.
- Increased gas formation.
- Desires to defecate up to 5 times a day.
Treatment involves a healthy diet, which creates an unfavorable environment for the life of the parasitic microorganism, as well as anthelmintic drugs. Pills are taken according to the scheme recommended by the doctor. After taking the funds, the parasite dies, and goes naturally out along with feces.
Pig tapeworm in appearance is similar to a bull tapeworm, but differs in length - it happens no more than 5 meters. Infection can occur when eating raw meat, as well as from a sick person. The life cycle of a tapeworm is 20-30 years. The parasite is capable of provoking two diseases:
- Cysticercosis, when larvae enter the body.
- Teniosis - an adult is “living” in the body.
Cysticercosis occurs against a background of a sharp headache, there are epileptic seizures, various rashes on the skin, pathological changes in the eyeball. Symptoms caused by an adult parasite:
- Allergic reactions, shortness of breath.
- Abdominal pain, upset stool.
- Loss of appetite, disruption of the digestive tract.
- Sleep disturbance, nervousness, irritability.
Treatment of larvae is a lengthy process. Single larvae are eliminated through surgical intervention, then anthelmintic drugs are prescribed.
To remove an adult from the human body, a narrow-spectrum antiparasitic drug is prescribed, which has a detrimental effect on a particular type of parasite. After the tapeworm leaves the body, it is examined to exclude the likelihood of its parts in the intestines.
As medical practice shows, curing parasitic diseases is much easier than diagnosing at an early stage. In view of this circumstance, it is recommended to pay attention to the slightest pathological changes in your body, and consult a doctor in time for adequate therapy. The video in this article will talk about the types of parasites that live in humans.